Absolute monarchy in France – the Abstract , page 1


Introduction


French
absolutism is an absolute monarchy
established in France in the last two
century of existence of the Old order.
Absolutism has replaced period
birth of the monarchy and was destroyed
The great French revolution.



1.
General description of the situation


Attempt General
States in the era of religious wars to limit
the king’s power failed. This
prevented the desire of the nobility to return to
feudal fragmentation and the desire
cities to restore its former
independence, while the General
States could still only be the Central
power.


On the other hand,
the upper class and the townspeople at odds
between them. People burdened by self-will
nobles and civil wars and was ready
to maintain the power that saved
it from anarchy. Henry IV was not convened
of the States General; after him they were
collected only once. Task
his government, he put
improving the economic well-being
the country and public Finance. He
helped the Minister Sully, harsh and honest
the Huguenot. They cared about raising
agriculture and industry on the facilitation of
assessor severity on making more
order in financial management, but not
have time to do anything significant.


During childhood
Louis XIII in 1614, had been convened,
to stop the disorder in the management,
the States-General. The third estate
delivered a program of transformation:
it wanted state officials
convened at a certain time to
the privileges of clergy and nobility
was abolished and taxes were falling on all
more evenly to the government
stopped buying the obedience of the nobles
cash distributions to terminated
arbitrary arrests, etc. Higher
the clergy and nobility were extremely
dissatisfied with such statements and
protested against the words of the speaker
the third estate compare three
bar with three sons of the same father.
Preference told that it is not
I want to acknowledge my brothers people,
which can be named soon
servants. Not doing anything, the States were
dissolved and has not convened
for 175 years.



2.
Richelieu


At the same meeting
moved, as an MP from
of the clergy, Bishop lysonski
(later cardinal) Richelieu. Through
for several years he was the chief adviser
and the all-powerful Minister of Louis XIII, and
for nearly twenty years ruled
France, with unlimited power.


Richelieu finally
approved system of absolutism in
French monarchy. The goal of all his
thoughts and aspirations were power and
the power of the state; this purpose, he
was ready to sacrifice all
the rest of it. He did not admit the intervention of
The Roman Curia in the internal Affairs of France
and in the interests of the French monarchy
took part in the thirty years war
(as long as possible delaying the entry of
France in it, until then, had not yet been
overcome internal problems
state) in which stood on the side
Protestants.


2.1.
Domestic policy of Richelieu


Domestic policy
Richelieu also had religious
character. His struggle with the Protestants
ended the “World of mercy”, kept
religious freedom for the Huguenots,
but deprived them of all FORTS and garrisons,
and actually destroying the Huguenot
“a state within a state”. At
the origin of the Richelieu was a gentleman,
but his cherished dream was to make
nobles to serve the state for the
privileges and land that they owned.
The nobility, Richelieu was considered the main
the backbone of the state specified in its
The “political Testament”, but required
from his compulsory military service
state, otherwise, proposed to deprive
their aristocratic privileges.


To follow
the actions of the princes, the governors,
accustomed to look on himself as on his
kind of the heirs of the feudal Dukes
and graphs, Richelieu was sent to the province
special Royal commissioners. These
the post Richelieu’s chosen people from
minor nobility or townspeople. And
the Commissioner, slowly but surely
arose the permanent position of quartermasters.


Fortified castles
nobility in the provinces were razed, and
duel much widespread among
the nobility are prohibited under pain of death
execution. Such measures had the people in
the favour of cardinal Richelieu, but the nobles
hated him, fought against him
court intrigue, conspire,
even resisted with weapons
in the hands of. Several Dukes and counts
he laid his head on the chopping block. Richelieu, however,
didn’t take away from the nobility of the government,
which it had over the people: privilege
of the nobility against the third
estate and his rights over the peasants
remained inviolable.


2.2.
The religious policy of Richelieu


Couldn’t make it up
Richelieu with Huguenot organization
representing the state in
state. French Protestants
in their district assemblies and
the national Synod of the reformed Church
often took purely political
decisions even to enter into negotiations with
foreign governments had
his Treasury, had many
fortresses and has not always been
submissive to the government.


Richelieu in the beginning
his reign decided all this
cancel. There followed the war with the Huguenots,
in which they received assistance from the
the English king Charles I. After
enormous effort Richelieu took them
the main fortress, La Rochelle, and then
defeated them on other points. He left
behind them all their religious rights by taking away
only the fortress and the right of political
meetings (1629-year).


Building state
on the ruins of the old
medieval buildings of class
monarchy, Richelieu cared more
just about the concentration of all control
in the capital. He established quite dependent
from the government the Council of state
for all of the most important cases. In
some provinces, he destroyed
local States, composed of representatives
the clergy, the nobility and the townspeople, and
everywhere, with the quartermasters, was introduced
strict subordination to the provincial center.
The old laws and customs it does
not shy at all, he used
his power with great tyranny.
The courts have lost it independence;
he often learned things from them
of reference, for consideration in an emergency
commissions or even personal your
solutions.


Richelieu wanted to subdue
the state even literature and created
French Academy, which
was to send poetry and criticism
desirable for the government of the road.


2.3.
Fronda


Louis XIII only
a few months survived his
Minister, and the throne passed to his son,
Louis XIV (1643-1715 years), during
childhood which was managed by the mother
him, Anne of Austria and cardinal
Mazarin, Richelieu’s successor policy.
This time was marked by unrest,
coinciding with the first English revolution,
but not having her serious nature;
they even got the name of the Fronde from
the name of a popular children’s game.


In this movement
participated in the Paris Parliament, the highest
know and people, but between them not only
was no unanimity — they feuded
with each other and moved from one
side to the other. The Paris Parliament,
the former is in fact only the Supreme court and
consisting of hereditary ranks
(as a result of the corruption of the posts)
put a few General requirements
regarding the independence of the court and personal
intact subjects and wanted
to arrogate to itself the right of approval of new
taxes, that is to the right
the state ranks. Cardinal Mazarin
ordered the arrest of the most prominent
members of Parliament; the population of Paris
he built barricades and the beginning of the uprising.
In this civil war intervened
princes of the blood and senior
the nobility, who wanted to remove Mazarin and
to seize power or at least
to force the government money
distribution. The head of the Fronde, Prince of condé,
broken Royal army under
superiors Tyurenna, fled to Spain and
continued to wage war in Alliance with the latter.



3.
Louis XIV


It ended with the victory
cardinal Mazarin, but the young king
made this fight very sad
memories. After the death of cardinal
Mazarin (1661) Louis XIV personally became
to rule the state. The troubles of the Fronde, and
the English revolution compelled him
hatred for every manifestation
public Amateur art associations, and he
all my life wanted to more and
strengthening of Royal power.
He is credited with the words: “the State
it’s me,” and he acted quite
in accordance with this saying.


The clergy in France
ever since the concordat of 1516
it was completely dependent on the king, and
the nobility was pacified by the efforts of
cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. When
Louis XIV feudal aristocracy
quite turned into a court nobility.
The king left for the nobility all his
painful for the people rights and privileges
but completely subordinated to his authority,
by bringing him to court life well
paid posts cash
gifts and pensions, with external honour,
luxurious, fun secular
home away from home.


Not loving Paris, which
was associated painful memories
childhood, Louis XIV created a near
from his particular residence, clean
court — city of Versailles, built
in this huge Palace, made gardens
and parks, artificial ponds and fountains.
In Versailles was noisy and merry life,
the tone which was set by the Royal
mistress Louise de La Valliere and Montespan.
Only in old age of the king when he
was most influenced by MS
Maintenon, Versailles had become
the likeness of the monastery. The Versailles court
began to imitate in other capitals;
French language, French fashion,
French manners spread
in high society across Europe.


In the reign of Louis
XIV began to rule in Europe and
French literature, who also
purely a courtier character. Earlier in
France existed among the aristocracy
patrons of writers and artists, but
from the mid-seventeenth century, and even
almost the only patron was himself
king. In the first years of his reign
Louis XIV appointed a public
pensions are very much French and even
some foreign writers and
he founded the new Academy (“inscriptions and
medals”, painting, sculpture, Sciences)
but demanded that writers and
artists glorified his reign
and did not depart from accepted opinions.


3.1.
The Ministers of Louis XIV


The Reign Of Louis
XIV was rich in wonderful
statesmen and generals.
In the first half particularly important
important was the work of Colbert
the Comptroller-General, Minister
Finance. Colbert aims
to raise national welfare, but in
opposition of Sully, who thought that
France should be first of all country
farming and cattle breeding, Colbert was
a supporter of the manufacturing industry
and trade. No one before Colbert did not lead
of mercantilism in such a strict,
consistent system which
dominated with him in France.
The manufacturing industry
used all kinds of incentives.
Due to high duties, from
borders has almost ceased to penetrate into
France. Colbert founded breech
factory ordered from abroad different
kind masters, were given to entrepreneurs
Treasury grants or loans, built
roads and canals, encouraged trade
and private entrepreneurship in
the colonies worked to establish a
commercial and military fleet. In
financial management he tried to enter
more order and the first to be
for each year of the correct budget. They
taken had something to facilitate
people against tax-paying burdens, but most importantly
attention was paid to the development of indirect
taxes to increase the funds of the Treasury.


Louis XIV, however, is not
especially loved Colbert, for his savings.
Much more his sympathy
used war Minister Louvois,
spending of funds that were collected
Colbert. Louvois increased the French
the army is almost up to half a million, she was
Europe’s best armament,
uniforms and training. He started
barracks and provision stores and
marked the beginning of a specifically military
education.


The head of the army stood
a few first-rate generals
(Conde, Turenne, and others). Marshal Vauban,
great engineer, built on
the borders of France, a number of excellent
fortresses. In diplomacy, especially
differed Lionn.

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