1. The use of absolute values and General indicators. The types of relative indicators 3
2. Statistical data analysis: main principles 7
In this work, will be considered the absolute and relative statistical quantities.
The relevance of the chosen topic due to the fact that the quantitative characteristics of socio-economic processes in close connection with their qualitative entity in the system of social production is impossible without a deep statistical study of the Use of different methods and techniques of statistical methodology assumes the availability of comprehensive and reliable information about the studied object. The study of mass social phenomena includes the steps of collecting statistical information and its primary processing information, and the grouping of observations in definite sets, generalization and analysis of the materials obtained.
When writing a work, the author has the following tasks:
The purpose of this work a comprehensive study of statistical observation.
In the end, the summary statistics get generic measures which reflect the results of the knowledge of the quantitative aspect of the studied phenomena. Original, primary form of expression of statistical indicators reflecting the level of development phenomena, are absolute values.
Absolute in statistics referred to as the total generalized indicators characterizing the dimensions (levels, volumes) of social phenomena in a given place and time. They characterize a country’s economic power and social life of the population (GDP, GNP, ND, real disposable monetary incomes of the population, the volume of industrial and agricultural production, volume of production of major products). For example, the population of the Russian Federation on 1 January 1997 amounted to 147,5 million people; in 1995, produced 307 million tons of oil (including gas condensate), 595 billion m3 natural gas, etc., in 1996 Russia’s GDP amounted in current prices 2256 trillion, the country’s industry during this period produced goods (works, services) in current prices in the amount of 1414 trillion rubles.
There are two types of absolute statistical values: individual and total.
Individual is called the absolute statistical values characterizing the size of the trait in the individual units together (for example, the wage of an individual worker, the contribution of the citizen in a Bank, etc.). They are obtained directly in the process of statistical observation and recorded in the primary accounting documents.
In contrast, the total absolute statistical quantities characterize the total value of the characteristic for a certain set of objects covered by statistical observation. They are the sum of the number of units of study’ population (population size) or the sum of varying a characteristic of all population units (volume variable characteristic}.
Absolute statistical values are named numbers, i.e. any unit of measurement.
Depending on the entity of the investigated socio-economic phenomena in the absolute statistical quantities are expressed in physical, monetary and labour units. Absolute statistical values can be positive (income) and negative (loss).
Natural units, in turn, can be simple (tons, pieces, meters, liters) and complex, being a combination of several of opposite values (the rail freight transport expressed in tonne-kilometers, electricity production — in kilowatt-hours, the expenditure of labour in man-hours, man-days). In the statistics used and the absolute figures expressed in semi-natural units (for example, different types of fuel are converted in conventional fuel tractors — the tractors in the reference).1
Money units are used, for example, to Express the volume of various products in value (monetary) form — rubles. In monetary units expressing the gross output, household income, etc.
When using money meter taking into account price changes over time. This disadvantage is overcome cost meters use “the same” or “comparable” price of the same period.
In labour units (man-days, man-hours) accounted for the total amount of labor in the enterprise, the complexity of the individual operations of the technological cycle.
Along with the absolute statistical quantities of great importance in statistics are relative values. In the process of identifying the number of critical socio-economic life issues there is a need to study the structure of phenomena, and the relations between its individual parts, the development in time.
Relative value in statistics is a summary measure which represents the quotient of division of one absolute indicator on another and gives a numeric measure of the correlation between them.
The basic conditions for the correct calculation of the relative value-comparability of compared indicators and real connections between the studied phenomena.
The value with which a comparison is made (the denominator), usually referred to as the base of comparison or base.
Depending on the choice of bases of comparison of the relative indicator can be presented in different fractions of the units: tenths; hundredths (i.e., percentage %); th (tenth part of a cent is called a ppm—%); ten (hundredth of a cent is called produziere — %OO).
The mapped values may be as like and unlike (in the latter case their names are derived from names of compared values, for example, RUB.; t/ha; USD/m2).2
In its content, the relative values are divided into types: the relative value of the speakers, planned tasks, planned tasks, structure, intensity, level of economic development, coordination and comparison.
Relative velocity magnitude (/) is calculated as the ratio of the characteristic level in a certain period or point in time to the level of the same sign in the preceding period or point in time, i.e. it describes the change in the level of some phenomenon in time. Select a base of comparison in the calculation of relative indicators of the dynamics is determined by the purpose of the study. The relative values of the dynamics are called growth rates.
The relative value of the planned target (iî PL) is calculated as the ratio of the level planned for the upcoming period, to the level actually existing in this period.
Relative magnitude of routine tasks Onvinyl) is the ratio actually achieved in a given period to the planned level.
The relative magnitude of the dynamics, targets and execution of planned tasks are related by:
i= iPL s* Onvinyl
The relative values of the structure are indicators of the share of individual parts of the investigated range in all its extent. They are calculated by dividing the number of units (or volume phenomenon) in parts of aggregate by the total number of population units (or volume phenomenon). They expressed a simple multiple of ratio or percentage. As an example, the relative values of the structure can serve as data on the share of urban population in total population of Russia: 1913 — 18%, 1996 – 73 96.
On a relative scale of intensity called the indicators characterizing the degree distribution or the level of development of a phenomenon in a particular environment. They are calculated by comparison of unlike quantities that are in a certain relation with each other. These indicators are usually defined per 100, 1000, etc. units of the studied population (100 ha of land per 1,000 of population, etc.) and are named numbers. Examples include population density, expressing the average number of inhabitants on one square kilometre of territory (8,6 persons/km2 in Russia in 1996), the provision of medical personnel (number of doctors of all specialties — 44,5 physicians per 10,000 of the Russians in the beginning of 1996), age-specific fertility rates (number of births on average per year per 1,000 women by age groups).
A variation of the relative values of intensity are relative indicators of the level of economic development that characterize the levels of GDP, GNP and Ni, etc. indicators per capita and play an important role in assessing the development of the economy (GDP of the Russian Federation per capita in 1995 amounted to 1 100 946 RUB at market prices).
The relative values of the coordinate are called the indicators of the ratio of individual parts of the whole together. Calculating this type of indices are produced by dividing one part of a whole to another part of the whole. Thus, the relative indicators for coordination are a form of relative indicators of intensity, the only difference is that they show the degree distribution, the development of dissimilar characteristics in the same aggregate (whole). Depending on the tasks or that feature can be adopted for the base. Therefore, for the same aggregate, it is possible to calculate several relative indicators of coordination.
On a relative scale of comparison is called indicators, representing the quotient of the same name absolute statistical values describing different objects (firms, areas, region, country, etc.) and relating to the same period (or moment) of time. For example, the ratio between the levels of the cost of certain kind of products produced at the two plants between the levels of labour productivity in different countries (with the same technique account).3
Calculating the relative value comparison, it is necessary to pay attention to the comparability of compared indicators from the standpoint of the methodology of assessment because on a number of indicators, methods of calculation in different countries or in different periods of time varies. Therefore, before calculating relative performance comparison, it is necessary to solve the problem of conversion to compare indicators using the same methodology.4
The scientific value of the relative indicators is high, but they cannot be considered in isolation from the absolute values, the ratios of which they represent, otherwise they will not be able to accurately characterize the studied phenomenon.
Using the analysis of relative values, it is necessary to show what the absolute figures behind them. Otherwise, you can come to the wrong conclusions. For example, when comparing two absolute statistical values 2 thousand and 5 thousand rubles. received relative to 40%, i.e. 2:5×100. The same result is by comparing 200 thousand and 500 thousand. But the absolute value of one percent, for example, the second indicator, in either case, will be different: in the first, it will be 50, and the second was 5000 RUB. Thus, only the integrated use of absolute and relative indicators is an important tool for information and analysis of the various phenomena of socio-economic life.