type (tuberculin, cellular, DTH)
– very large, with which the antibodies
can not cope. It grafts.
primary: UM, testicles in men
acquired, or atypical (tumor
cells, aging, embryonic),
induced under the action of physical,
sensitization sensitized answer
contact of the allergen with the lymphocyte ,
T-lymphocyte is activated.
ways of activation:
– if the clone of sensitized
T lymphocytes is insufficient, the lymphocyte
turns into blast – blast transformation.
After 12 hours in culture lymphocytes
the increase in the content of
protein, after 48 hours the cells begin
– if a sufficient number of lymphocytes.
The lymphocytes release biologically active substances – lymphokines
3 groups of lymphokines:
acting on lymphocytes
(stimulates mitosis) or blasttransformation
transfer – transfers the information about
sensitization in the intact (untrained)
acting on the phagocytes:
activating micro – and macrophages
suppressing the migration of phagocytes
acting on target cells:
(tumor necrosis factor, TNF)
a lymphocyte attaches to target cells,
with the help of membrane-associated
enzymes (phospholipase and perforin)
damage the membrane of target cells and
affects her lymphotoxin.
Further cell lysis is carried out
phagocytes, i.e. develops aseptic
of allergic reaction IV
– toxin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Administered in the middle third of the forearm.
The result removed in 72 hours
measure the size of the papules. In norm – diameter
= up to 1 cm; if the papule pouted in the body
there is a Mycobacterium, and immunity
non-sterile, i.e. weakened are
at the insertion point. But if mycobacteria
active – the papule is huge, sometimes
in the middle of the necrosis.
when in contact with low molecular weight
substances. Can be pharmacists,
photographers. Can occur life.
an Allergy occurs when contact. And then
no contact is formed eczema.
transplant rejection. First
disturbed function of the graft, and
then the graft is removed from
– BAV, hormones and their receptors.
sensitisation answer – IgG.
AG with At occurs at the receptor or
from the complex of AG and Al is formed on
the receptor. Resulting
or stimulation or inhibition of the function
often targeted endocrine
Allergy and immunity
in the experiments Topley.
mumps is administered 0.1 ml of antioedema
serum of the rabbit.
Day 1-3: introduce 2.0 ml serum antioedema
rabbit + 0.01 ml horse serum
There is no shock. Many antibodies.
Guinea pig And took its 2.0 ml serum,
and introduced another Guinea pig.
1-3 days she was injected with 1ml of serum antioedema
Shock, death. A lot of antigen.
antioedema serum of the rabbit.
1-3 days: 2.0 ml serum antioedema
rabbit + 1.0 ml horse serum
Shock, death. A lot of antigen.
Guinea pigs during the previous
it was taken 2 ml serum, and put 4
1-3 days: she was injected with 1.0 mo horse serum
There is no shock. All antibodies during shock
connected. In the Guinea pig D
only the antigen.
the functioning of the body
the development of pathogenic immune responses
against its own cells and non-cellular
pathogenesis of diseases of immune autoaggression
stages of pathogenesis “Immunodependent”
diseases of autoaggression
the normal ratio of Th/Ts
anergy of T cells to autoantigens
polyclonal activation of lymphocytes
“forbidden” autoaggressive clones
“immunogenicity” diseases of autoaggression
the abolition of the natural antigen
the ophthalmia – occurs in not injured
the eye with penetrating injury of other
in the body of antigens, similar to
endogenous (the phenomenon of “antigenic
another AG are produced At, but they
partially similar to their AG. Occurs
occur when taking penicillin.
antigens of the organism. Very often such
properties are haptens.
genome (mutations) in the cells of the body.
“immune-dependent” diseases of autoaggression
depending on the number of affected organs:
(organospecific) – Thyroiditis
(systemic or generalized) – System
lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatism
Central nervous system:
– stimulating antibody to the receptor
– a blocking antibody to the receptors for dopamine
thyroid gland – Thyroid
goiter – stimulating antibody to the receptor
TSH; Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – blocking
– Anemia of Edison-Meremere – At to
parietal cells of the stomach or At
internal factor Castle
depending on the dominant mechanism
(β-cell) – Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,
autoimmune hemolytic anemia,
autoimmune thrombocytopenia, systemic
(T-lymphocytic) – poymyosh syndrome
Sjogren (loss of glands)
(T-,b-cell) – polymyositis, scleroderma,
dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis,
hell – the absence of the first immunologically
stages of allergic reaction.
– the phenomenon of Mikhail Shvartsman.
the phenomenon of Edison-Sakharov:
the basis of allergic III
type on the subcutaneous administration of protein –
local anaphylaxis. In the experiment he
recreated under rule 5 fives.
Rabbit subcutaneously five times with an interval of
5 days is entered by 5ml of 5% solution
of egg albumin. After the 3rd injection
in the area of injection – swelling, itching, redness.
5 days after the last injection
at the injection site – necrosis is developed.
the phenomenon of Mikhail Shvartsman:
subcutaneously culture of microorganisms.
Then, the next day, intravenously below
introduced culture of microorganisms. And
the primary injection occurs
necrosis. If intravenous culture
microorganisms to make together with
heparin, necrosis will not. Through
the day of sensitization will not. Heparin
cannot prevent allergic
development of allergic responses:
the body LIBERATI HISTAMINE
(antispasmodics, local anesthetics,
muscle relaxants, iodine-containing substances,
the plasma substitutes, vitamins, some
of complement via the alternative path
of arachidonic acid metabolism with
the shift of metabolism towards
leukotriene (aspirin asthma).
– bronchospasm, urticaria, anaphylactoid