Alpine newt – Abstract


Introduction


Alpine newt or
mountain Triton[1] (lat. Mesotriton
alpestris, a synonym of Triturus alpestris
) is a species of
newts of the genus Mesotritonsquad
caudate amphibians. Alpine
Triton is known for their bright colors.
A rare view.



1.
Distribution


Alpine newt
it is widespread in most areas
Central Europe — from France
the West to Romania and the Ukrainian Carpathians
in the East. The Northern border
passes through the territory of Germany, South
areas of Poland. Rare
Northern Spain, Northern Italy, Hungary,
Bulgaria, Austria, Denmark, Greece. The view is not
found in Portugal.[2]



2.
Classification and subspecies


Alpicola Triton
traditionally attributed to the genus of newts
(lat. Triturus). The results of the recent
genetic studies of the genus Triturus was
divided into several independent
delivery, and Alpine newt were assigned
the genus Mesotriton (Bolkay, 1927).


Currently
allocate nine subspecies of Alpine
Triton:



  • Alpine newt,
    the nominotypical subspecies
    (M. a. alpestris Laurenti,
    1768)



Common in
France, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands,
Luxembourg, Poland, Austria, Switzerland,
Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Balkans.



  • Italian
    Alpine newt
    (M. a. apuanus Gray, 1850)



The subspecies is found
in the North of Italy South of the Alps. Representatives
subspecies distinguished by the presence of spots on
throat.[3]



  • Spanish Alpine
    Triton
    (M. a. cyreni Mertens & Muller, 1940)



Found in
The Cantabrian mountains of Northern Spain.
Looks almost no different from subspecies
alpestris and apuanus, except a bit larger
head and rounded body shape.[3]



  • Yugoslav
    Alpine newt
    (M. a. lacusnigri Dely, 1960)



Found in Slovenia.



  • M. a. montenegrinus Radovanovic,
    1951



Fully neotenic
subspecies that live in Montenegro.



  • M. a.
    piperianus Radovanovic, 1961


  • M. a.
    serdarus Radovanovic, 1961


  • M. a.
    inexpectatus Dubois & Breuil, 1983


  • Greek Alpine
    Triton
    (M. a. veluchiensis Wolterstorff, 1935)



Lives in Central
Greece. From the other subspecies differs
a shorter tail.[3]



3.
Description


The total length of the body
the Alpine newt, including the tail,
on average about 11 cm Tail
slightly shorter or equal to the length of the body
head. Within the aqueous phase of life
the Triton’s skin is smooth, while the ground
lifestyle — bumpy.[4]


Alpine newts
(especially males) are painted bright
back gray-brown, sometimes almost
black with purple and dark blue
spots on the sides of the body and legs,
fiery red abdomen. Low spinal
the comb is decorated with alternating dark
and bright spots. Females have a more
modest colour.



4.
Life cycle


After wintering appears
in the spring in April or may and almost immediately
starts to reproduce, which
occurs in water. Females lay
up to 300 eggs the size of 2-3 mm, fastening
them to the underwater parts of plants, often
the eggs are placed in groups of up to 7 PCs.
After spawning, which
occurs from may to June, adults
return to a terrestrial lifestyle.
Hatching of larvae occurs after 20-30
days. Initially, their length is only
about 7 mm in the ponds they live in, while
won’t grow up to 2 cm After
metamorphosis in July or August young
newts leave the ponds. Known
partial neotenic
development, when within a few
years the larvae of the Alpine newt is not
left his native pond, they
grow to 7-8 cm In September tritons
hiding under stones or fallen
trees until next spring.[5]



5.
Lifestyle


Alpine newt
prefers woodland with access
to water in hilly or mountainous areas.
With the exception of the mating season of Alpine
Triton can conduct a ground way of life,
and can stay in the water – it depends on
specific subspecies and even specific
population. During the day he is in hiding
in the undergrowth, and during the mating season
in bodies of water.


Adults feed on
earthworms, insect larvae,
snails and spiders during water phase
it feeds on small crustaceans.



6.
Species protection


Alpine newt
listed in the Red book of Ukraine and related
to category II (vulnerable species).[6]
The main reasons for the decrease in the population
the Alpine newt is pollution
forests, drying, freezing, and
pollution of water bodies.



List
literature:



  1. Ananjeva N. B.
    Bor, L. I., He Has Also Been I. S.,
    Orlov N. L.
    Patheticly dictionary
    the names of animals. Amphibians and reptiles.
    Latin, Russian, English, German,
    French. / under the General editorship Acad.
    V. E. Sokolov. — M.: Rus.lang., 1988. — S. 33.
    — 10 500 copies — ISBN 5-200-00232-X


  2. Description
    and distribution (English). on
    Global Amphibian Assessment


  3. Description
    subspecies of Alpine newt (English).
    on the website Caudata.org


  4. Description
    kind Mesotriton alpestris (English). on the website
    AmphibiaWeb


  5. He has also been
    I. S., Orlov N. L.
    Rare and endangered species
    animals. Amphibians and reptiles:
    Reference book // Moscow: Vyssh. wk., 1988. —
    pp. 67-68. — ISBN 5-06-001429-0


  6. Description of the form (Ukr.)
    on the website of the red book of Ukraine



Source:
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Альпийский_тритон

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