American darter – Abstract


Introduction


American darter[1]
(lat. Anhinga anhinga) is a species of bird in the genus
smieszek family pelecanoides,
living in North, Central and
South America, and Cuba.



1.
Description


Body length average of
is 85 cm, weight 1,350 g, wingspan
wings 117 cm, length of the beak is 81 mm.
The head is small and looks simple
a continuation of a long serpentine neck.
On the neck the 8th and 9th vertebrae form a
loop-like device that
you can quickly throw the head
when catching prey. The beak is long, sharp
and slightly serrated on the edges. Wings
wide, allowing it to float in the air.
Paws are webbed for ease of swimming
but their structure is more adapted for
movement along the shore and sitting on
the shrubs and trees. The tail is long,
used in flight, braking and
balancing. In the air the tail resembles
the tail of the Turkey. In General, the structure of the body
resembles the structure of the cormorant, and the head
and neck like a Heron.


Painting American
SEESAC has dimorphic traits
that is, females differ from males. Have
males the plumage is overall gray-black
the back of the back and outer side
wings shows individual silver
the colors of the feathers, and the ends of the wings white
feathers. Males also have a black
comb. Females are less bright in color —
brown with light brown head
and neck. Chicks of zmeeshejka painted
monotonous brown color. Molt
plumage occurs simultaneously.
Unlike other waterfowl,
zmeeshejka feathers completely wet
precontact of water that allows it
better to dive. This property, however,
reduces the buoyancy, quickly reduces
body temperature and prevents the fly.
[2][3][4][5]



2.
Distribution


American darter
live in the North (the United States South of the state
North Carolina, Mexico) and Central
America, Panama and Cuba. Individuals seen
in the more Northern areas of the U.S., arrive
back in March-April and remain until October
then go back to Mexico and South
States. In South America the species is found from
Colombia to Ecuador, South to Argentina.
Lives in fresh or brackish
ponds, near which there are thickets
shrubs or trees: lakes, rivers,
swamps, estuaries, lagoons and bays.[2][6][7]



3.
Behavior


American zmeeshejka
fly or run on water or
jumping from the height of trees or shrubs.
Get on Board on the water, usually gliding on
surface or sliding from the shore. In
driving on the water outside is visible
only their head and neck that apparently
resembles the movement of a snake. While in
the water, most of the time hunting
for fish, the rest of the time sitting on
the branches of trees. Often gets out of the water
and immediately climbs on the highest branch,
to dry off in the sun. Also
for drying often spreads its wings
like the cormorants and vultures-Turkey
(Cathartes aura). In the water quickly loses its heat
body due to fast namakemono body.


Prefers to live by
separately, but is sometimes found
among herons, cormorants, ibises, or
storks. Although it nests in small
groups during netdania follows
site. Usually a quiet bird,
sometimes in flight or at the nest emits a
clicking, chirping or cawing.
[8][2][3]



4.
Food


Mostly hunts
fish (perches, centrarchidae
(Centrarchidae), toothcarps (Cyprinodontidae)), but sometimes
eats aquatic invertebrates
and insects. Although the American darter
not considered a fast-swimming bird,
she successfully hunts thanks
their long fast necks and sharp
the beak. She is stalking slowly
floating victim and quick movement
puncture it with his sharp beak,
then comes to the surface,
throws up in the air and swallows. [4]



5.
Reproduction


The sexual maturity at
American zmeeshejka comes
approximately 2 years. In tropical
and subtropical zone of the mating season
lasts year-round or depend on
rainy season in more temperate latitudes
it depends on the time of year. American
zmeeshejka monogamous (living in pairs) and
can use the same socket
several years in a row. The male begins
courting the female, flying and soaring in
the sky, and then marks the spot of the future
the nest twigs. Then it all
his appearance begins to attract a female.
After the pair formed,
the male begins to produce material for
the nest and the female builds the nest on the branches
tree or shrub close to
water.


The female lays
one egg every one to three days. Just
the masonry is formed from 2 to 6 eggs, on average
4 eggs. Eggs greenish or
bluish, sometimes brown
spots. The incubation period lasts
25-30 days. Usually the males are carefully guarded
the nest from visitors and can even
to join the fray. If another male
approaching the nest, the father is greatly
spreads its wings and snaps his beak.
If the danger does not disappear, he begins
to bite the stranger in the head and neck. Females
less aggressive, but also protect
nest if necessary.


Newly hatched
the Chicks are helpless and they have no
feathers. In the beginning parents feed their
Chicks, discarded pieces of partially
overcooked fish and dropped them in the water. As
only older Chicks themselves climb
parents in the beak in search of food. Chicks
remain in the nest for about
three weeks, but in case of danger can
previously to jump into the water, and then again
to get to the nest. After three
weeks they are able to get out of
the nest on the branch, and six weeks
they get the tail. However, in
for several weeks they remain
with parents. [8][2]



List
literature:



  1. Boehme
    R. L., and flint, V. E.
    Patheticly dictionary
    the names of animals. Birds. Latin,
    Russian, English, German, French.
    / under the General editorship Acad. V. E. Sokolov.
    — M.: Rus. lang., “RUSSO”, 1994. — S. 22. —
    Copies 2030 — ISBN 5-200-00643-0


  2. del
    Hoyo, J., A. Elliot, J. Sargatal. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the
    World. Vol. 1, Ostrich to Ducks.. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.


  3. Hennemann,
    W. 1982. Energetics and spread-winged behavior of anhingas in
    Florida. Condor, 84(1): 91-96.


  4. Owre,
    O. 1967. Adaptations for locomotion and feeding in the Anhinga and
    the Double-crested Cormorant. Ornithological Monographs, 6: 138-276.


  5. Scott,
    S. 1983. Field Guide to the Birds of North America. Washington D.C.:
    The National Geographic Society.


  6. Hennemann,
    W. 1985. Energetics behavior and the zoogeography of *Anhinga
    anhinga* and double-crested cormorants *Phalacrocorax auritus*.
    Ornis Scand., 16(4): 319-323.


  7. Isenring,
    R. 1997. By the Wayside. Passenger Pigeon, 59(4): 347-358


  8. Burger, J., L. Miller, D. Hahn.
    1978. Behavior and Sex Roles of Nesting Anhingas at San Blas,
    Mexico. Wilson Bull., 90(3): 359-375.



Source:
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Американская_змеешейка

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