Aromatizate sheep, Abstract , page 1

Contents:



  1. Name
    the classification operation.


  2. Anatomotopographic
    the structure of the operated region.


  3. Training
    for surgery.



    1. List
      necessary drugs
      materials.


    2. Methods
      sterilization of instruments, dressing
      and suture materials.


    3. Training
      the animal for surgery. Methods and techniques.



  4. Preoperative
    stage.



    1. Fixing
      animal (methods and techniques).


    2. Training
      operating margins (methods and techniques).


    3. Treatment
      the hands of the surgeon (methods and techniques).



  5. The contents
    operation.



    1. Ways
      anesthesia.


    2. Operational
      access.


    3. Dissection
      tissues.


    4. Stop
      bleeding.


    5. Operational
      welcome.


    6. Final
      phase of the operation.



  6. Arising
    and possible complications, ways of their
    elimination.


  7. Postoperative
    stage.


  8. Conclusion.


  9. List
    of used literature.



1.
The name of the classification operation.



Aromastone
[
novalith. abomasum
– rennet (lat. AB
from and omasum
the entrails of the ox) and Greek. tome
– the dissection]

the autopsythe abomasum.Aromastone
was first used in 1986 by S. G. Alcovy
to remove phytobezoars of rennet
sheep (Fig. 1). According to S. G. eltcova,
phytobezoar represent the ball
irregularly shaped, contain undigested
and tightly compacted particles of plants
with a mixture of inorganic salts. Bezoars
can also be formed from wool,
which licked and swallowed
animals. Prevalence got
in the southern regions of our country when feeding
stemmed plants covered
fluff and dust and the lack of
the watering place.



Clinical
signs. The disease is manifested in
the rapidly progressive form of flatulence,
colic, a pronounced depression
animal and inability to walk;
sometimes there are gagging.
With the above external clinical
the signs of the animals die quickly.
The fatal outcome of the disease is due to
infringement of phytobezoar in prioritetai
part of the stomach or in the intestine. If
phytobezoar impede the movement of
forage mass between the abomasum and the owner,
the disease runs without attacks
flatulence and colic and is characterized by
the progressive depletion of animals.



Diagnosis.
Is some difficulty in
the case when phytobezoar not caused
blockage prioritiesas part of the stomach
or bowel. Professor A. R. Evgrafov
and associate Professor M. Pawlowski recommend
to use palpation in the area
rennet, which can be detected
overlying phytobezoar and cause pain
response.



Forecast.
Recovery is possible only if
timely surgical intervention.



Abouttoday
relates to medical surgical
operations, in accordance with the focus
and her character. Refers to bloody
operations, which are accompanied by
violation of the integrity of the skin with passing
vessels. As done on
uninfected tissues, belongs
to aseptic. After delivered
the diagnosis, assess the patient’s condition
the animal, if it is satisfactory
at this point, the operation can
some time to wait, it will
be considered non-urgent. But if there is a threat
the life of the animal, as if abouttoday
possible blockage of the stomach or intestines,
a pinched inwards, operational
the intervention is carried out in the shortest
time and the operation is urgent.
Recovery is possible only if
timely surgical intervention
and how exactly is the diagnosis from
these two conditions will depend on the life
animal.



2.
Anatomotopographic structure
the operated region.



The abomasum
(abomasus)
– the fourth division of the multi –
stomach of ruminants. Is actually
stomach. The abomasum lies in the right hypochondrium.
His curve surface it is adjacent
directly to the abdominal wall along
costal arch, starting from the xiphoid
of the 12 rib cartilage to symphysis. In the form
curved pear. The abomasum consists of a small,
greater curvature and fundus. It has two
holes: the book and input. It
hole periodically opens
through the sphincter and passes mass
twelve duodenum. Mucosa
the membrane of the abomasum is covered with prismatic
the glandular epithelium. The mucosa is divided
into three zones: cardiac, Bungalow and
perepelichenko. Joint secret
which is gastric juice
(rennet juice) – a mixture of secrets glands
the abomasum. Cardiac and perepelichenko
zone – located tubular glands with
the main cells, and fundalini area
glands with chief cells, secreting
hydrochloric acid. Muscularis –
two layers: longitudinal and circular. All
camera feed on the blood of the left gastric
artery. Innervation: autonomic
the nerves of the solar plexus and the vagus
nerve.



3.
Preparation for surgery.



3.1.
A list of required tools
drugs materials.



Tools:



  1. Shaver,
    scissors Cooper or machine for
    vystrogana.


  2. Machine
    to commit.


  3. Syringes.


  4. Needle
    injection, straight to the syringe.


  5. Needle
    surgical: curved round,
    triangular curved.


  6. Needle holder
    Mathieu.


  7. Scalpel
    pushisty.


  8. A pair of scissors.


  9. G
    hooks.


  10. Tweezers
    surgical, anatomical


  11. Clips
    a hemostat.



Materials:



  1. Basin:
    warm water with soap.


  2. Towel
    sterile.


  3. Sheets
    or wipes sterile


  4. Tampons
    cotton-gauze.


  5. Bandage
    cotton-gauze.


  6. Materials
    for joints: round silk thread,
    cotton thread, if there is
    the possibility of the catgut.


  7. Gloves
    sterile rubber surgical.




Drugs:



  1. Alcohol
    for degreasing the surgical field.


  2. Chlorpromazine
    2.5 mg/kg


  3. Ethyl
    alcohol 300-400 ml of 40%.


  4. 5%
    solution thiopentone-sodium 15 ml per 1 kg.


  5. 5
    % solution of tincture of iodine or 5% alcohol
    the formalin solution.


  6. Isotonic
    solution


  7. 0,5
    % alcohol solution emergencyday.




3.2.
Methods of sterilization of instruments
dressing and suture materials.



Sterilization
tools.



Sterilize
tools are boiling (main
method), burning (planirovanie) and
antiseptic solutions (chemical
processing).



Before
sterilization tools wipe
removing them with vaseline and check them out
serviceability. Sophisticated tools
(scissors, needle holders, hemostatic
tweezers, etc.) are sterilized half-open
or unassembled. Cutting and piercing
instruments (scalpels, needles, etc.)
wrapping up with gauze for protection
from blunting.



Sterilization
boiling. The tools placed in
simple sterilizer, warm it up
any heat source (gas stove,
electric) or electric. When
the absence of the sterilizer used
any enamel bowl with lid.
Pour into the sterilizer needed
the amount of water (tools must
to be covered completely) and add
0.25% sodium hydroxide or 2 % sodium
carbonite. The solution is heated to boiling
and after 3-5 min after it is boiling
immerse the sterilizer in mesh with
pre-plated on it
tools.



Tools
sterilized for 15-20 min. after
the specified period is extracted from the mesh
sterilizer and how will flow only with
tools water, lay them on
sterile instrumental table
or leave it in the steriliser without water.
After the wipe, slightly greased (only
castle) liquid paraffin and put them in
tool cupboard.



Sterilization
by charring. This method usually
decontaminate large tools
other cases use burning
rare. The tools put in enamel
basin or sterilizer, sling
a small amount (5-10 ml) of ethanol and
evenly roasted. This method
insufficiently reliable.



Chemical
sterilization. The tools are immersed in
one of the following antiseptic
solutions:



1)
liquid Karetnikova – 30 min;



2)
3-5 % solution of the carboxylic acid on
30-60 min;



3)
a solution of bactericide 1: 3000 for 10 min;



4)
1% alcoholic solution of brilliant
green at 15 min;



5)
0,5 % alcoholic formalin solution;



6)
solution furatsilina 1: 5000;



7)
0,2-0,5 %-s ‘ solutions helicidine.



Developed
and tested methods of sterilization
the instruments and dressings
ionizing radiation (gamma –
radiation of radioactive substances –
cobalt-60, cesium-137, etc.), which
has a pronounced antimicrobial
action.



Sterilization
the dressing material.



Dressing
the material is sterilized in an autoclave (steam
under pressure), services or by boiling.



Sterilization
in the autoclave. Material take off loosely
in a metal box, or a slut, in
a certain order. Before placing
in the autoclave slut open mesh
the hole in his side
walls. Time of sterilization depends on
pressure in the autoclave. Optimal
is considered to be 1.5 – 2 kg/.
The slut is taken out from the autoclave after
as will be closed in their walls openings
you can leave them to dry in
autoclave for 20-30 minutes.



Sterilization
the services. Hold on a table covered
carefully ironed and folded
double or triple sheets. Material
lay thin layer (about 1.5 – 2
cm), sprinkle with water and iron
on both sides of the iron, moving it
at a speed of 50 cm per minute. At
same place doing the iron
2-3. Protogenia laid
sterile corringham in a sterile BIC
or wrap in a sheet.



Sterilization
boiling. Rarely used, as
the material remains wet, which dramatically
it reduces suction power.
This material is wrapped in
gauze, placed in
sterilizer or other container and pour
water or solution of lactitol ethacridine
(1:1000). Heat any device. Sterilized
in water for 2 hours, the solution 1hour since
boiling. The water is drained, chilled
dressing squeeze
disinfected his hands and put
in the same dishes in which it is sterilized.



Sterilization
suture material.



Sterilization
silk. Initially, the silk is wound on
glass cocks, sticks. If silk
dirty, pre-wash it 2-3
times in warm water and dried with a sterile
towel.



Method
Sadovsky. Silk first dipped to
15 min in 0.5 % solution of ammonia, after
what a sterile towel stand
its in a 2% formalin solution at 65 % strength
alcohol, and stored until use.
Silk retains its strength and becomes
antiseptic properties (action
formalin), thereby accelerating
the healing of wounds.



Sterilization
catgut. Catgut can not withstand high
temperature, so it is treated
antiseptic, blowing
not long 1 m and coagulation in rings.



Method
Sadovsky – Kotleta. Catgut in the beginning
immersed for 30 minutes in 0.5 % solution
of ammonia, and then transferred into 2%
formalin solution, 65 % alcohol, where
incubated 30 min. Keep the catgut
in the same solution.



Linen
and cotton thread are
in an autoclave, or handled the same
as silk. Kapron and lavsanovyh
the bone are sterilized by boiling in water
for 20 min.

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