Change food proteins – Abstract , page 2


Molecule of protein under
a number of factors which can be destroyed
or interact with other
substances with the formation of new

To bring the product to the
full readiness to denatured
proteins heated at temperatures
close to 1000C, more or less
for a long time. In these conditions
further changes are observed
proteins associated with the destruction of their
macromolecules. In the first stage of changes
from protein molecules can otdalyatsya
volatile products such as ammonia,
hydrogen sulfide, phosphorous hydrogen,
carbon dioxide, etc. Accumulate in
the product and the environment, these substances
involved in the formation of taste and aroma
ready food. With prolonged hydrothermal
the impact occurs depolymerization
protein molecule with the formation
water-soluble nitrogenous substances.
An example of degradation of denatured
protein is the transition of collagen in
the gluten free.

Destruction of proteins
occurs when the production of some
types of dough. In this case, the destruction
intramolecular bonds in proteins
occurs with the participation of proteolytic
enzymes contained in the flour and
produced by yeast cells.
Proteolysis of gluten proteins have a positive
affects its elasticity and promotes
obtaining baked goods of high
quality. However, the process can
have negative consequences if
protease activity flour is too high
(flour from unripe grain, etc.).

some cases, degradation of proteins by
proteolytic enzymes is
focused technique that contribute to
the intensification of technological
process, improve the quality of the finished
products, getting new products
power. An example is the use of
preparations of proteolytic enzymes
(powdered, liquid, pasty)
to soften tough meat, weakening
gluten-free dough, produce protein
the hydrolysates.

For an adult
enough 1 to 1.5 grams of protein per day per 1 kg
of body weight, i.e. approximately 85 — 100 g..
children’s protein needs are much
above: up to 1 year — more than 4 g of protein per 1 kg
the body weight for 2-3 years — 4 g, 3
—5-year — old- 3.8 g, 5-7 years — 3.5 g
Increased protein needs in children
due to the fact that in a growing organism
dominated by synthetic processes and
protein food is essential not only for
maintain nitrogen equilibrium, but also
growth and body shaping.
Lack of dietary protein leads to
delay and complete cessation of growth
of the body, lethargy, weight loss, heavy
edema, diarrhea, inflammation of the skin
of the skin, anemia, decrease
the body’s resistance to infectious
diseases, etc.

Closest to
ideal protein animal proteins.
Most vegetable proteins have
insufficient maintenance of one or
more essential amino acids. For example,
in the protein of wheat is not enough lysine.
In addition, vegetable proteins are digested
an average of 75%, whereas the animals on the
90 % or more. The share of animal protein needs
approximately 55 % of the total number
proteins in the diet. The experiments showed that
one animal or one plant
protein have a lower biological
value than mix them in optimal

Therefore, it is better to combine
meat with a garnish (buckwheat, or potato),
bread with milk etc.

The problem of increasing
biological value of products
food has long been the subject of
serious scientific research. In
amino acid balance for
by the predominance in the diet products
plant origin planned
the deficit of three amino acids: lysine,
threonine and methionine. Increase
biological value of products
the power may be exercised by
adding chemicals
(for example, concentrates or pure
drugs lysine), and natural
foods rich in protein in General and
lysine, in particular. Application
natural products is
the undoubted advantages over
enrichment products of the chemical
drugs, all natural
products protein, vitamins and mineral
substances are natural
proportions and in the form of natural
connections. Among the various natural
products special attention because of
the high content of lysine deserve
dairy (whole milk, dry
skim and whole), cheese, dairy
whey (cheese, whey)
native and concentrated and
the dried form.

Question No. 2.

Food from agricultural
poultry, game and rabbit. Range.
The technology of preparation.

Meat rabbits

Completing the processing of rabbit meat,
and preparing them for implementation, should
take care of collecting some account
data that will be required to
characteristics of meat productivity
animals. And this figure is
the most important in the assessment and analysis of the results
breeding. First of all, define
slaughter weight and slaughter yield of meat. In
the first case is the weight of the carcass without
skins, heads, limbs, entrails
or without them (except kidneys), the second
the mass ratio of carcass to live weight,
expressed as a percentage.

The slaughter weight and slaughter yield,
determine the meat efficiency
animals depend mainly on
the conditions of feeding, age, breed
peculiarities of rabbits. Their biologically
good nutrition during all periods
growth and development of the body, especially
at an early age, contributes to a more
the full manifestation of the potential
opportunities for weight gain.
Accordingly, increases with age
and slaughter yield. Thus, according to leaver it
average (%): newborn
— 41,2; 2-month-old young — 45,4—55,2;
3-month — 53,2—61,5; 4-month — 55,0—61,8;
A 4.5-month — 57,1 and at the age of 300 days
63. Various meat productivity
is achieved depending on the breed
features. If rabbits
specialized meat breeds
(Californian, new Zealand white)
carcass yield at the age of 2-3 months reaches
60 %, for mesocoracoid rocks it is equal to
50-55 %.

The rabbit can be divided
into four parts (cuts). Their approximate
the ratio of carcasses with liver received
from the young rabbits at the age of 3
to 5 months, ranges (%): hip
part — 32,0—32,7, lumbosacral
20,5—21,5, shoulder 12,1 -12,8,
cervical-thoracic part of 22.1—23.9 per and liver —

According to the standard (GOST 27747-88
“Meat rabbits. Technical conditions”
introduced on 1 July 1989 in return MRTU 18/104-65)
processed carcasses of rabbits must
to be well drained, and deprived
bruising, bruising, fringes
muscle tissue, balances the skin and
internal organs (except
kidney); head separated at the first
cervical vertebra, front legs —
carpal, back — hock

From the surface and from the
the internal cavity of the carcass is washed. In
the cooled form, its mass must be
less than 1.1 kg, and the carcass of a chicken — from 0.8 to
1.1 kg.

Purchase at the population of rabbits
for slaughter shall be in accordance
with the requirements of GOST 768655. Of fatness
carcasses of rabbits must meet
the following requirements:

— muscle
fabric is well developed, hips are made
and well rounded, spinous processes
the spinal vertebrae do not protrude; the deposition
fat on the shoulder and in the pelvic cavity in the form of
thickened bands.

Category II
— muscles are developed satisfactorily,
thighs tightened and rather flat, spinous
processes of the lumbar vertebrae slightly
act; deposits or traces of fat
the shoulder and in the pelvic cavity minor
(it is allowed and almost no fat

Carcasses of rabbits that are not relevant
of fatness the requirements of category II,
referred to skinny and is intended only
for industrial processing of food

The rabbit should be fresh,
odor and osoznanie.
Carcasses with a modified (darker) color
frozen more than once
deformed with fractures
bones, Stripping from bruising or
bruises and breaks on the strip of fat on
back more than 1/3 of the length of the carcass, for
the sale is not allowed
(used for industrial

The authorities of veterinary surveillance at each
carcass (on the outside of the Shin)
impose the same stigma: round I
category-square — II. Apply
also mark the oval for the rabbit
from broiler growers and triangular
carcasses that do not meet the requirements I and
II categories.

Carcasses are Packed in packages of
plastic film, although permitted
implementation and without packaging. On the package
or the label attached to it, indicate
following data: name
the manufacturer, its subordination to
and trademark, name of product
(also a category of fatness), the word
“inspection”, the retail price for 1 kg
the designation of the standard.

Packed carcasses are placed in
boxes, on the end sides of which
(or labels) labeling
odorless paint it pink (you can
red) band for I and green — II

In cold processing from carcasses
rabbits cut the seal, remove the
the neck, cervical vertebrae, kidneys,
cleaned and cut into two parts –
front and rear (the division line needs
pass through the lumbar vertebrae).

The rear part (legs, back
part of) the carcass of a rabbit contains less
connective tissue, muscle fibers
it does not require long heat
processing, so the flesh of the legs and
the dorsal part is primarily used
for the preparation of natural and
stuffed meatballs, kebabs. The front
part of the rabbit carcasses are used mainly
for stewing. For making the cutlet
masses use the pulp of the front and
the rear parts of the carcass of a rabbit.

Rabbit refers to the so
called white meat. High
the amount of proteins, small
the amount of fat, extractives
and cholesterol distinguish this meat
from beef, pork and lamb. Protein
rabbit meat is absorbed by the body
man 90 % (beef only 62%).
Rabbit meat is recommended for diet
food, especially children and the elderly,
as well as in hypertension,
diseases of the liver and stomach, gall
ways. Due to the fact that the rabbit
meat contains a small amount of
purine (38 mg per 100 g of meat) and chloride
sodium (84 mg per 100 g of meat. In the same
the number of veal the content of chloride
sodium is 130 mg), it can
apply for clinical nutrition
people suffering from gout or use
a limited amount of chloride
sodium. The presence in the rabbit lecithin
and a small cholesterol
to contribute to prevention of atherosclerosis.
Rabbit meat is also rich in vitamin PP
(nicotinic acid), salts of potassium,
calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Fat rabbit
white, soft, the temperature of its melting
22 – 25. He leaves no unpleasant
taste, easy to digest. As
growth of rabbit, the meat content of carcasses and output
edible parts increase as a result
increase the content of muscle and
fat and decrease output of bone. Should
to note that the carcasses of rabbits
typical high output the most
valuable in the food respect the muscle
fabric (8083 % compared to 5060 % other
species of animals). With the age of the animals
meat increases the protein content
and fat, its calorie content increases.
Liver, kidney and lungs of the rabbit are
also a valuable food. In
liver contains 22 % protein and 2.2 % fat,
in the lungs, respectively, of 15.8 and 2.6 and kidneys
In 14.0 and 2.7 %. In addition, in these bodies
contains vitamins (ascorbic
acid and Riboflavin).

Rabbit meat can be cooked
a huge number of delicious dishes. It
boiled, fried, stewed, smoked, baked
or roasted on the grill. Any table will be
rich, if it’s served with fragrant
and tasty rabbit.

Agricultural bird.

Poultry meat (carcasses of chickens, ducks, geese,
turkeys, Guinea fowl), manufactured industrial
businesses for sale
network, public catering network and
industrial processing is supplied
enterprises in accordance with GOST

To generate poultry use
agricultural bird according to GOST

Depending on the age of the bird
the meat is divided into the meat of a young and
the old birds. To the meat of the young birds
include carcasses of chickens, ducklings, goslings, Turkey poults
with neocolonialism (cartilaginous) fin
the sternum, with neorogovevshey beak,
with a delicate elastic skin on the body.
Undeveloped tubercles in the form of spurs.

The meat of an adult bird include
carcasses of chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and Guinea fowl
ossified (hard) / breast
bone and Horny beak. Spurs have
turkeys and roosters solid.

The poultry carcasses are divided into
polupotroshenoy, gutted, gutted.
with a set of giblets and the neck.

– carcasses that have removed the bowel
a cesspool filled with goiter, oviduct (
female individuals).

the carcass, which removed all internal
bodies, the head ( between the second and third
cervical vertebrae), neck (without skin)
level, shoulder joints, feet
zaplesneveyut joint and below it, not
more than 20 mm. the Internal fat of the lower
part of the stomach is not removed.

Gutted carcass with the kit
giblets and neck
– gutted
carcass, the cavity of which is embedded in the set
the processed giblets ( liver, heart,
the gizzard) and neck, packaged in
polymer film, cellophane, or parchment.

Depending on the temperature
thicker breast muscles of carcasses are divided
to the cooled ( temperature not above +25*C)
cooled (0 to +4*C), frozen (not
above -8*C).

Bird received on the enterprise
chilled, used without
preparation, and ice cream
defrost. Defrost produce
in a refrigerated room with a temperature
8-15*C and a relative humidity
85-95% within 10-20h. Carcasses are placed on
racks in a row so that they do not
in contact with each other, or hung
on the racks. Defrost produce
to achieve a temperature deep in the muscles

Of fatness and quality
processing of carcasses of birds of all kinds
are divided into first and second

the carcasses allowed a single hemp and
light abrasion, no more than two breaks
leather long 1 cm each (not
on the chest), slight desquamation
the epidermis of the skin.

category –
well carcass
the slight quantity
stumps and abrasions not more than three breaks
skin 2 cm each, sloughing of epidermis
of skin dramatically worsens presentation

of poultry carcasses, except individually
Packed in packages of polymer
the film, produced by electrollama or
gluing of labels. Electroclash,
for the first category of figure 1, for the second
figure 2, is applied to the outer surface
tibia: the carcasses of chickens, cesaret, chickens,
duck on one leg; the carcasses of ducks, geese,
geese, turkeys and turkeys on both legs.
The image of mark should be clear.

the label is pink in color for the first
category and green for the second paste
leg olopatadine carcasses below
zapuskalova joint, and gutted –
above zapuskalova joint.

the label must include the word
“Inspection”, the enterprise number.

the package body is sealed with the adhesive
tape or metal clip, or
the label, a subdirectory of the package must be

  1. Name of the company
    manufacturer, its subordination,

  2. bird species, category and method
    processing of poultry carcasses;

  3. food and energy

  4. the word “Inspection”;

  5. the designation of this standard.

birds are Packed in wooden boxes
No. 19,20,22 according to GOST 10131-93, boxes corrugated
cardboard No. 15-I,15-II,16-I,16-II
according to GOST 13513-86 in a row height, one
type, category of fatness and method

List of used literature

21784-76 “poultry Meat and products of its

27747-88 “Meat rabbits. Technical
the terms” introduced July 1, 1989 instead MRTU

G. G. “Technology of cooking”,


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