Not to disappear to the craft. The secrets of felting footwear – Abstract

Moscow
region


Shatura
municipal district


village
Dmitrovskiy Pogost


MOU
Korobovskaya SOSH


with
advanced study
items


Research
work


Topic:


“Not
to give a disappearing craft.


Secrets
felting shoes.”



Finished: Sokolova Elena


student
Class 10


MOU
Korobovskoe SOSH


with
in-depth study


separate
items


C.
Dmitrovskiy Pogost


Shatura
municipal district


Moscow
region


Head:


Baranova
Tatiana


head
school Museum


2010.


Plan:


1.
Introduction. What made me turn
to the topic of the study? Justification
goals and objectives of the work.


2. What
we know about our native Russian footwear.


a)
When and where there are boots?


b) How
called boots before?


in)
Boots – a good thing!


g)
The dignity of Russian boots.


3. Secrets
craft of felting.


4. What
opened new for myself and for those who
want to get acquainted with
technology of the ancient craft.


5. Boots
for the front.


6.
Conclusion. Insights on the subject studied.


Topic:
Not to disappear to the craft.



The secrets of felting shoes.


Let
I don’t know the intricacies of rural life,


Let
me city the fate led,


Only
all of us village made


From
where all the roots of my homeland!


It
so…what it really means?


So
as there is no rucica, or not,


But
for us there is no more important than on earth of the task,


Than
the village to return, to revive, to save!


(E. Asadov)


  1. Introduction.
    What made me refer to this
    the topic of the research? Rationale objectives
    and work tasks.



My
native village of Dmitrovskiy Pogost is
a small shard of a beautiful suburban
region, which affected the whole story
Rus and Russia. Studying the history of the village,
convinced that we have something to be proud of
and the ancestors of capable, hardworking and
wise people. They committed so many
great discoveries!


And all
is it with a sense of pride in
his native village, somewhere in the depths
down there is a feeling of resentment for your
native land, and in the thoughts appears a lot
questions: why the village life is dying,
decayed building, overgrown
grass fields are closed farms and state farms.
The youth leaves his native village…


For
lately a lot’s said about
the revival of Russian villages, but
nothing has been done to it. So
destruction of villages is even more
rapidly. Eradicated original
the rural way of life, her spirituality and
Holiness. Everything is futile.
Currently in nearby villages
home to mostly retirees. In the summer
come vacationers. The village is not growing
does not develop.


Hard
hope that descendants who lived
here the peasants will return to the graves
their ancestors and return to his small
home. But I think debt living today
here – save for the grandchildren and great-grandchildren
our land, the names of the villages, customs and
traditions, occupations and crafts of rural
people – Cooper, Lacemaker, embroiderer,
wood carving, basket weaving and
many others who were meaning
the life of our ancestors!


Probably
almost everyone of us remembers how once,
in childhood he was wearing winter boots, in
which was warm and cozy. Boots –
one of the symbols of Russia, proving
talent of the Russian people and rich
the unique culture of our country. What
we know about our native Russian
shoes, boots? Very interested to know
as usual tuft of wool turns
in boots the result of hard work,
to trace this process from the people’s
craftsmen from start to finish, to open
the secrets of their manufacture of boots;



  • wanted
    to find the address of rural artisans
    felting boots


  • find out
    the roots of the skill of the fuller, who
    go to century, to know how boots saved
    Russian people during adversity


  • to do
    everything possible to record everything
    you can about this craft and not to disappear
    and die craft forever



2. What
we know about our native Russian shoes?




a)
When and where there are boots?


In the dictionary
V. Dahl read:”Boots
the kind of shoes or boots, hand-made of
wool”. For us this shoes
so familiar and habitual that not
needs a description. In the view
foreign guests boots more
recently, it was considered the unofficial symbol
our country, one of the necessary
attributes of the image of the Russian people.


What is
the history of these wonderful shoes –
boots?


You know,
that the first wool was
discovered in the Altai, their age has
about 2500 years. The most ancient articles of
felted wool are rugs. And the very
felting, as a way of processing wool
it was in wide use at the steppe
the nomadic peoples. Asians were made
from matted fur cushion, insole,
insulation under the clothing and even
it covered the walls of their homes.

However
the first mention of
“felt boots” that we find in
the ancient masterpiece of the Russian
literature “the Word about Igor’s regiment”.


Homeland
these boots is the city
Myshkin, Yaroslavl province,
craftsmen which in the XVIII century were the first
play boots a whole with the shaft.
Only two Russian cities – Myshkin
and Moscow museums of Russian boots.
From the Yaroslavl oblast boots steel
to spread very quickly throughout
the territory of Russia. Later, in each
the village got its own “workshop”
for the manufacture of boots, and in the cities
even built the factories.


Boots
very simple: have a single form,
product does not have any seams that
always to the extreme surprise of the foreigner.
Most likely, due to this feature
there is a saying “simple as
valenki”. But this expression does not
attributed to the manufacturing process
boots, which requires effort and
specific knowledge and skills.


b)
What was the name of the boots before?


In different
the regions of the Russian felt boots called
different: in Nizhny Novgorod –
“hasankale” and “katakami” in Tver
the field of “Valenza” in Siberia
“pimami”. The name depended on the coat:
boots are made of goat hair called
“volosatymi” and “antics”, and
sheep – “katakami”.

For centuries
felt boots were very expensive
pleasure. Well, if
the house was one pair of boots at all –
then they were worn by seniority. And family
which felt boots were all
households are considered wealthy. Boots
was a wonderful gift, and went
from generation to generation.


in)
Boots – a good thing!


A lot
years ago, without boots our ancestors did not
think the Christmas and Shrovetide,
fair, during which always stood
real Russian winter and bitter
frost! Then was built the famous
Russian folk song “Valenki”.


Boots,
Yes, the boots, Oh,

But not filed,
old.

Not boots to wear

Not
what’s to cute to go…


Felted
shoes worn and authorities:
Peter I, for example, expelled the hangover,
I’ve worn the boots on bare feet and
ate a plate of cabbage. Catherine
II and Anna Ivanovna wore made
specifically for them boots even
luxurious ballroom dresses. Saved
boots and our army during the
the second world war. Greatly helped
they are travelers and reclaimed
in the Northern territory.


g)
The dignity of Russian boots.


Village
was very happy when he appeared
boots!


Before
winter and summer go to sandals, which
enough for four to five days wear, and
then they were worn into holes. Boots
were the village people and on the leg,
and like. Girls, when wondered to
Epiphany night at her spouse,
masked, threw the gate not the Shoe,
not the slipper, and boots.


Russian
winter the coldest, most severe,
so lose the boots, meant
die. Took care of them, hemming. However
what is surprising is that the Germans in the second
winter war on the Eastern front was
boots, clothing and shoes from felt. For
soldier reporting for duty,
anything more expensive boots were not –
warm and durable footwear not only took care of
from the cold, but in the battle to protect the legs
from small fragments. It’s been a
time until felted manufacturing
mastered in the villages. It is very profitable
was the fishery for each
home boots roll. The technology of felting
passed down from generation to generation,
because each craftsman had his own secret
and boots was special.


3.Secrets
craft of felting.


Distinguish
boots hand rolls and machine. Before
in Russia we have had a lot of factories
the manufacture of boots. Now many of
them are closed. But the process of hand
the manufacture of boots we saw at
Bryansk Anna Ivanovna living in
the village Kharlampieva. It’ll be
kilometers from our village. This village
famous masters of their craft: Khomenko
K. I. , romadina Z. P. , Korolev’s family,
Bukin, Minevich. Anna
told us all the secrets of this
wonderful craft. Pre-need
to prepare the wool. Wool in no
the case should not be vesnici (spring),
otherwise, the boots will not work. Before
to make boots wool needed
be sure to knock. Broken coat
represents large sheets puff pastry
wool. Her laid out on the table.
It is imperative that the length of the table
should equal the length of the boots. Master
he knows that men’s boots have
take 2 kg of wool, for women’s 1.5 kg for
children’s 600-700 g. the Most important skill
who must learn is
to be able to “lay the boots”, i.e. to lay
start: to level rubel wool and
to roll it on the table, indicate the heel,
toe the future boots. The basis for
boots wound on special
the rolling pin and rolled on the table, almost like
dough. After several hours of intensive
the Catania-based boots turns into
felt. It is worth noting that at the initial
the cycle master operates using rags,
which from the table is not cleaned constantly
in the course of.


Then
billet soaking in the bath warm
water from the boiler, check the thickness
boots, add boiling water. Next ride
with the Darts – square
spindles – rolled all – FNL, the sole,
the heel shaft. At this point add
acid or copper sulphate. Master
remember this secret, heard from
grandparents: if you put a lot of acid or
sulfate – boots will warm worse.


So
be sure to observe the norm of acid.
Then back rolled using a wooden
rubel. And only then placed on
pad, consisting of four parts:
from the apron, heel, boots, and most
feet (tops).


After
the master leveled the length of the boots and
puts into the mouth of the stove to dry. Boots
almost ready! If it’s white boots, and
work with them more, they will be
RUB with pumice stone or chalk. It happens
that I want to have the felt boots is
white coat and yellowish. Here
and to have hard rubbing, seeking
white.


Have
black boots burn pile to
boots didn’t lochmelis.


In
a conversation with fuller, I learned that
play is not difficult, much harder
to lay the boots. Under the leadership of
in the wizard, you can quickly acquire the necessary
skills. Resident Kharlampieva Homeland
Nina 3 years went to other people’s rooms, studied.
Need forced to learn the skill!
There were many children. Had to play
boots and for family and for sale. On
question – why did little masters left
in the village?- residents say that older
people power are not the same for bookmarks
requires decent physical strength.
Gradually sheep are reduced in the village. All
fewer of those who hold cattle
in the rural areas. And most importantly – beat wool
was nowhere; closed the enterprises in
Klepiki and Voskresensk. So, we need
seek where there is a felt factory. But
this is the only way to bring down the wool. Of the unbeaten
wool boots not make.


4.
Opened new for myself and for those
who wants to get acquainted with
technology of the ancient craft.



  • Long
    time a secret of production the boots
    was the secret design
    pads. The secret was solved, and a new
    shoes rushed to the people


  • Widely
    known therapeutic effect of felt boots,
    which warms the joints


  • Real
    the color of the boots – white, gray, black,
    brown. Painting in other colors
    only affects the properties of the felt


  • Ready
    boots polished with pumice. First
    for the sake of aesthetics. Secondly for
    dry with a smooth felt easier
    slipping snow, and therefore it is longer
    do not get wet



5.
Boots for the front.


A lot
concerns about the Soviet army showed
workers of the Moscow region.
During the war, workers,
servants, farmers sent in the current
an army of many thousands of various gifts
1200 thousand warm clothes, including 50
thousand pairs of boots and 21 thousand coats.


Very
quickly deployed production
to meet the needs of the front
the textile and light
industry. Textile and light
the industry produced for
front greatcoat cloth and overcoat, pant
and gymnasticnude fabric Cape,
hats with earflaps, felt boots.


Only
in our area we read in the newspaper “Moskovsky
Bolshevik”-


Published
the message that farmers selhozarteli
“Aurora”


Krivandinskaya
district in the spring of the current year made in
The defense Fund more than 200 thousand rubles. They
sent soldiers a few dozen
warm coat and boots. On the farm
began collecting funds to build a tank
“Aurora”.


1942год
14 Nov.


USSR
do not assume that a war on their own
the territory will lead to disastrous
the state of Affairs in the army with winter ammunition
and warm things. One of the main tasks
in the rear, in the winter, was to provide
our army warm clothes. People were sent
to the front knitted mittens and socks,
boots and coats, everything in the house
or made at home. You know, that was
plan on going to the front boots,
collected from the population. People sometimes
gave the last, knowing that it is
on them depends the life and health of their
defenders. Working capital and suburbs
every day exceeded the production
jobs, working for themselves and for the departed
to the front comrade! The ranks of the workers joined
thousands of wives and mothers of soldiers, their
sisters and younger brothers. On the old
black-and-white photo of wartime –
a huge pile of boots at the station. In the years
The great Patriotic war boots
tons delivered from the front to the factory
repaired and was again distributed among the soldiers. But
that’s what surprised! In the second winter of the war
the Germans on the Eastern front became
appear boots, and other clothing from
felt. And yet we were “armed”
boots much better than the Germans and their
allies, and it was a significant factor in the
our victory!


6.
Conclusion. Insights on the subject studied.



  1. The
    important in any craft – a love for
    their work! Maybe because so well
    and cozy to wear boots , that they retain
    the warmth of the hands of their creators. As before,
    craft felting is transmitted from the master
    to the master from generation to generation.


  2. The fuller
    always been a revered master in Russia.
    The roots of his wonderful skills go
    in century. Many times saved the Russian
    a person’s boots, for example, during
    The great Patriotic war!


  3. “Simple as
    boots”, “playing the fool” “do Not wash
    or by crook” – has gone down these
    sayings in our language. And no one should
    to explain what they mean: rustic
    boots, like a Russian peasant, but also
    durable, solid and reliable, like him,
    will not fail in difficult times!


  4. In the village
    the elderly even in the summer the boots are not removed.
    You can often hear from the elderly,
    what if a child, at least up to ten years
    took place in felt boots, he never
    does not get sick. Scientists Of The Russian
    Academy of medical Sciences established
    that felt shoes dilates blood vessels
    and improve blood circulation.

    Sheep
    wool has healing properties
    – accelerate the healing of wounds and fractures.

    Oh! Boots…..
    lost far away in the attic,
    distressed by moths and time, ridiculous
    the old boots. Thisword
    “boots” makes us smile, a pleasant
    memories of childhood, immediately brings
    purely Russian:
    winter, frost, snow, as the saying goes no
    coats and boots and winter without end!




Boots is the face of our culture
funny, laughing, warm, cozy,
friendly and very simple.


Boots,
boots!

Oh, Unfiled, old!

Boots,
boots…


Literature:




  1. The battle of Moscow (prologue to the
    the great victory)2005.


  2. Battle
    for Moscow, 1975.


  3. Internet
    the website of the city of Myshkin http://www.myshkin.ru/frameset.htm


  4. Work
    Russian literature “the lay of
    Lay”


  5. Dictionary
    V. Dal


  6. Russian
    festive folk costumes: Introduction
    children with Russian folk culture
    folklore, traditions and customs. 2001
    year


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