universal scientific method.
can you lead, except by obeying her
Question 1 Problems
of modern philosophy and empiricism F.
The problems of philosophy
New time in the context of development
science. Historically, a New time –
long period, covering the SIXTEENTH and NINETEENTH
century. This time is characterized by the transition
to an industrial society, and numerous
discoveries in the natural Sciences. This
time philosophy ceased to develop,
nothing original in the middle ages
and Renaissance has been established.
An important role in
the formation and development of philosophy played
classical science, the creators of which
was N. Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo.
With the name Newton connected open
the laws of mechanics and universal gravitation,
the development of the theory of light. For the first time scientists
teamed up at London’s Royal
society of natural Sciences
to practice new, experimental
philosophy. Scientific Secretary of the society
I. Newton wrote: with facts and experiments
it is impossible to argue. The purpose of the society
scientists to be an accurate description
natural phenomena not the language of philosophers,
a simple language of mathematics, anatomy,
magnetism, mechanics, physiology,
Geology. Comes the era of disciplinary
“egoism”: scientific knowledge begins
to rapidly differentiate. Now
each science has developed its own “beginning,”
own language, and each of them could be
itself became “pure”
professionals, philosophers took together
the rethinking of philosophical knowledge
as such. Philosophy is reconciled with
self-sufficiency of other Sciences and
elect shelter Kingdom
of the spotless mind. Three problems tried
to solve the philosophers of New time, first,
to find a universal method of cognition
nature, effort of searching for the truth. This task
was solved in two ways, there were two approaches:
empiricism and rationalism. Empiricism
(from the Greek. experience) – philosophy
that all knowledge derives from
sensual experience. Rationalism (from
lat. reasonable) – philosophy
who believes that any problem should
to solve from the point of view of reason, and the laws
of the universe are logical,
versatile, and amenable to mathematization.
Secondly, there remains the ontological
the problem of unity and diversity
substances. Substance (lat.
essence) is a synonym of matter, substance,
something constant, something that exists
because of himself, not because of
another. Third, philosophers are trying
to solve the gnoseological problem
“link” the subject with the object and come
to paradoxical conclusions. Material
the world does not exist if does not exist
observer. The existence of
philosophy, because the objects that cause
and consequence, continuity, even
the existence of consciousness, is
the only and reliable source
knowledge. Thought so “last” the voice
New time Scottish philosopher D.
Hume (1711-1776), he said that we always
staying in the power of illusions and errors.
Bacon as the prophet of the modern technological
“First” was an English philosopher
(1561-1626), who is called a prophet
modern technological revolution.
One problem interested him all
the impact of scientific discovery on human
no one else in his time, and in subsequent
three hundred years was not engaged in such
meticulous this problem. In our days
this issue has lost relevance,
becoming a reality, but at the time
Bacon was an innovative belief that
knowledge must bear fruit in
practice that science should serve
industry. Science can change
the conditions of human life, it is
the instrument, designed by man
in order to achieve universal brotherhood
and progress. Like its namesake,
the alchemist and the Creator of experimental
method (experimental science) by Roger bacon
(1214-1292), Francis bacon amazing
way anticipated many discoveries. It
wrote about sound transmission at a distance and
and about controlling growth of organisms on
the weather forecasts.
and writings of Francis bacon.
The philosopher was born in London in the family
the Lord Keeper of the Royal seal,
he studied at Cambridge University.
Listened to the lecture of Giordano Bruno, who
made a strong impression on him.
Bacon managed to make political
career, he “came” to the post
Lord Chancellor in 1618. Career
was interrupted when bacon was accused of
corruption, the king forgave him, but
career was finished. Bacon wrote
many works On
dignity and enhancement Sciences, New
but its most famous essay New
which he lit
new lamp in the darkness of philosophy
Studying at the University of philosophy
Aristotle, bacon was disappointing
in it, this philosophy is good for debates
and barren for human life. This opinion
Bacon kept until the end of life. Know
means to know, knowledge is power,
said bacon. The philosopher had died of cold,
studying the action of frost on the safety
criticism of the philosophy and its new purpose.
Bacon begins with a critique of all previous
philosophy for what respectful
tradition contrasted the trick
the mind and the vagueness of the words. Philosophy became
absolutely barren in terms of cases and
has become a tool of superiority
on the debates. In the work of Refutation
criticizes Aristotle, who drew
enslaved so many minds and free souls,
but never was useful
humanity. What can we expect from
the man who designed the world
of the categories? Do not give the child
ancient Greek philosophy
can only talk and quarrel, but not
able to produce? Therefore, philosophy
words you should replace with the philosophy of the case.
The new purpose of philosophy is to help people
to achieve practical results.
Bacon criticizes mages and alchemists,
especially to Paracelsus, that they
keep the knowledge secret, true
knowledge is social in nature and
should be stated in clear language.
True knowledge is the result accurate
experiments. Paracelsus gave
experience when he drove the phenomenon under
the way to the “leadership” nature.
Bacon comes to the conclusion that the person
can affect natural phenomena, actively
to interfere in them, but only if
what are the known causes of
the servant and interpreter of nature, acts
and understands as much as he can
to establish the nature of the device by
observing things and the work of the mind; he
does not know and can not know anything beyond
. Science and human potential.
coincide, because ignorance of causes prevents
achieve the result, and nature, you can
to lead, except by obeying her.
It is necessary to conduct a full
update knowledge by starting with the basics
science. First, we need to be free
against false idols,
to philosophy was
the theoretical basis of the Lightbringer
to move on the path of progress, not
move in a circle. Secondly, to formulate
the only way,
which can only lead
the human mind to contact with
misconceptions: a theory of the idols of the genus and caves.
The most famous part of the doctrine of bacon
is an enumeration that leads
people to errors. There are four kinds of idols,
which prevent the search for truth
interfere with the human mind. To distinguish
idols need to be exempt from
them. Idols are kind of fed itself
human nature, human
family or from. The human mind
comes up with something in reality
no. So the idea that in the sky
any movement should always occur
around and never in ellipses or
helices. Human mind when he
finds any easy or apparent
correct or convincing and enjoyable
the concept, customize everything else so
to confirm it. The problem is
that should be prepared in order
the progress of science to reject the easy
a hypothesis or conjecture, or theory, if
she found contrary to the facts.
On the other hand, mind is inclined easily
transfer qualities of one thing to other
the objects that these properties do not have.
Feeling enters the mind and destroys
Idols of the cave
come from the individual. Each
of us, in addition to General misconceptions
inherent to the human race, has
a private cave in which the light
nature scatters and goes out because of
the specifics of the education, habits, the influence
other people, because of the books he
reading, and the authority of those whom he
admires. Therefore, as bacon writes,
rights was Heraclitus when he said people
looking for knowledge in their own little worlds, and
not the big, common to all the world.
misconceptions: a theory of the idols of the square and
theatre. Idols of the square or market
depend on human contact, communication
between people is by using
of a language sufficiently non-critical and
inadequate use of words to
absolutely bewilder the mind.
Definitions and explanations that
scientists often use for self-defense,
just not conducive to the recovery
the natural connection of the mind and things.
Words rape the mind, interfering with reasoning
drawing people countless contradictions
and incorrect conclusions. Bacon believed
the idols of the square, the most serious of all,
the words draw their power against the mind,
what makes philosophy and other Sciences
sophistical and inactive. Idols
square are of two types: names
non-existent things, like the fate of
or perpetual motion, and the names of things
available, but confused, uncertain,
Idols of the theater
has penetrated into the human soul through
different philosophical doctrines. Bacon
he calls them idols of the theatres, because
all philosophical system – the tales
designed to be played on
stage. The fable is not only philosophical
sects, but also the scientific principles developed
traditionally, blind faith. Right
called truth the daughter of time, not
authority. We, said bacon, are looking for
a new method, unknown to the ancients,
allowing the minds of more modest reach
great results. As they say, and
lame, put on the right path,
faster overcome a difficult pass;
after all, not knowing the way, the more in a hurry
the more strays. So true
the goal of science is to find the right method
research. Bacon tried to work out
the method of self-purification of the mind, freeing
the mind from idols, you can refer to the study
science: create a “new” nature and
Freeing the mind from the “idols” should
refer to the study of nature. Goal
science is creating
and the opening
forms of nature, of natural differences.
Bacon foresaw the wide application
metal alloys (steel), transparent
and shatterproof glass, a device for
storage throughout the year citrus.
The second task of science is to open
shape natural essence. Bacon was
I agree with Aristotle that true
knowledge is the knowledge of causes.
Of the four causes of Aristotle, material,
formal operating target,
the last is the least useful to science.
knowing the form, you may get the results
which he never gave any natural
changes neither the case nor the experience.
To know the shape of different things means
penetrated into the deep secrets of nature,
become its master. Under the form of bacon
understands the structure of phenomena and the law
the opening shape follows the truth of the observation
and freedom of action.
We can say that these conjectures
the philosopher anticipated the emergence of biochemistry
and even modern atomic physics.
inductive logic. Open forms
nature requires a new method. Bacon
believed that traditional logic
useless for scientific study
the syllogism is not able to penetrate
the depth of the natural phenomena. In the work
The new Organon he justifies
inductive logic, experimental-inductive
the method of investigation of nature for
the establishment of General laws of nature.
The research process consists of two
parts: the first is to extract
axioms of experience, the second is in the breeding
new experiments from axioms.Induction
(from lat. guidance) displays the axioms of
senses and particulars, rising from
the particular to the General (for example, if a
separate the metals to melt, then
all metals have the property of melting).
Deduction (from lat. elimination) of the same neglect
experience based on abstractions.
Proper induction – analysis of the phenomena
their comparison and selection, with the aim of identifying
existing reasons. He valued his method
because he showed how to classify
the observed facts,
be based science. This implies
his theory of the three ways in cognition.
Three paths to knowledge:
ant, spider and bee. Those who engaged in
science was “pure empirically” or
“pure rationalists”. “Clean
empiricists”, as the ants just gather
the disparate facts, but I can not understand
the essence of the studied phenomena. B. Russell
ironically this is something
unfair to the ants,
but it illustrates the idea of bacon.
“Pure rationalists”, like spiders, weave
a web of thoughts from ourselves. This way
ignores the role of specific facts.
The most famous German rationalist
the philosopher Hegel (1770-1831) said: questions
to which philosophy does not give answers
should not be put in this way,
if the facts contradict the system, the
worse for the facts. Is perfect
the middle way is the way of bees, which
collect pollen from flowers and streamline
turn pollen into honey, change
the material is your own skill. In
the work of a true philosopher is not important
only the power of the mind and raw materials, recoverable
from experiments. Important close Union
experience and mind.
the classification of Sciences. Bacon for the first time
tried to classify the Sciences.
First, most General division of knowledge he
(as Plato) establishes, on the basis of three
different spiritual abilities
man: memory, imagination and reason.
Science is based on reason,
here bacon took the philosophy of nature
and anthropology and Humanities
the memory (history) and imagination
(art). Further separation of the Sciences
bacon is coming from
reasons that every branch of knowledge
should have its own special sphere of existence. To
so far there is no generally accepted
the system of classification of Sciences.
The ideas of Francis bacon in
the context of contemporary philosophy of science.
The main conclusion is that bacon
exaggerated the role of induction, he thought,
what about deleting everything on the basis of
some of the facts, you can get a true
theory. Bacon does not give itself the report in
that the number of competing hypotheses
always very much. The inductive method
less important in science than building
hypotheses. Bacon believed that we can make
table of all phenomena of the universe. When
using a simple sequencing of facts
you cannot make the hypothesis obvious.
Hypothesis generation is more difficult
and an important part of scientific work. Opening
the periodic law of chemical
elements, the hypothesis of the expanding
universe, theory of relativity and
natural selection did not appear
only on the basis of simple gathering
facts. So far there is no method
the invention of hypotheses according to the established
rules. But that hypothesis is
a prerequisite for the correct
trends in the collection of facts. Bacon
underestimated the math, considering it
insufficient experimental. So far
then, in science, the main criterion of truth
was an experiment, but today the number
hypotheses, metaphors grows, a check
impossible, need a giant instrument.
The problem of induction through a simple
the listing remains unresolved until
now. Is there something that is impossible
to register and measure, for example,
“out of body” (N. Spondylitis)?
Second, the idea
if we begin to research,
willingly able to clean our
the mind of preconceptions is wrong. Bacon
believed that the world needed to know this,
what it is, and not as
tell everyone his thinking.
originates effective transition
the human spirit in practice, is
the transition from science to contemplative science
active. Software project bacon –
knowledge of the world for the sake of domination over him.
In principle, dominating nature
contained a warning against
of human attempts to conquer nature.
Only today began to understand that
people not only contemplative or
ruthless conqueror of the experimenter,
but the monad world. For a long time
it was considered that the scientific and technical
progress is a definite benefit. Now
it is becoming increasingly evident that it is not
so (V. V. Nalimov).