Poverty in Russia (2) the Abstract , page 4


4.
ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF THE POPULATION
IN RUSSIA



The beginning of a new
century in Russia was marked by the release
protracted socio-economic
crisis and business recovery.
As a result, gross domestic product
(GDP)of the country
compared to the level of 1999 began
increase in current prices for 2000
8% in 2001 to 14 in 2002 – 19%; but in
comparable prices, GDP growth for 2002
the city was 3.7% for 2003 and 7.0, 2004
is expected to increase 6.4% in 2005, 4.8,
2006 – 4.9 for 2007, 4.9%. Along with these
data for comparative analysis
there are also shown in table 1
the following official figures for
the last few years.



Table 1.
7



Russia’s GDP
in comparable currency (at par
purchasing power of the currency)



































GDP



1996



1999



2000



2001



2002



Common
volume, bln.


$



996,1



891,0



1003,2



1076,6



1145,6



On
capita


$



6742



6090



6892



7438



7961





Comparing
the above Russian GDP estimates
per capita with the same
in other countries, you can identify
that the level of development of Russia in 1996
was about a quarter of the US level
and about a third of the level in Germany and
Sweden. In 1999, the gap has increased and GDP
for the soul of the Russians amounted to less than a fifth
part of GDP per
the soul of the American and about a quarter –
German or Swede.



For 2001.
the UN calculated values
GDP per capita for the world as a whole
– 7376 dollars, for Russia – 7100, US –
34320, Sweden – 24180 for Germany – 25350
dollars. Thus, Russia
close to global averages
development, but still significantly
below the level of European countries and the United States
(about 30% of the level in Sweden and Germany and
about a fifth of the US level).
It is obvious that major improvements
standing, especially as
Russia has not yet reached pre-crisis
level of development (about 80% of the 1990 levels
g).



Among
Russian economists had the idea
to propose to the Government to double the volume
created in the country’s GDP, present
to raise the standard of living of the population
in the coming years. When made in
annual GDP growth of 5-6%
doubling its overall volume can
happen in 12-14 years to reach
approximately 15 thousand dollars on one
resident (this is the current level of Greece,
Barbados and the Bahamas). Quite
it is clear that you will need a different scale
to solve the problem, because in other countries
GDP is still increasing. So,
to IMF estimates, the annual growth rate
GDP during 2001-2004 in the world will amount to 3-4%,
developed countries 2-3% (including in the area
Euro about 2%); in developing countries
– 5-6% (including in China 7-8%) and in countries
in transition – 4-5% (including
in Russia – about 5%). Published
official forecasts further
development of Russia-oriented
the persistence of high world oil prices,
proceed from the average annual growth rate
GDP, close to the IMF estimates. According to various
options, average annual GDP growth
Russia in 2002-2007 will not exceed almost
5-6% – such growth rates will not allow
during this decade to double GDP per
capita even with reduced
the number of Russians. Apparently, the amount of
a proportion of GDP in every Russian
you need at least triple to get
at the current level of European
countries, more than 20 thousand dollars
capita, but in this case
the achieved level of GDP remains below
the level of the countries with high income levels.
It is quite obvious that the task for the future
to put it in the tripling of the GDP, which
will require an average annual increment
10-12%, which is unlikely.



Table
2.
8



Cost of living
at least the Russians (rubles per month; to
1998 – thousand rubles)



























































Group
population



1992



1998



2000



2001



2002



All
the population



1,9



493,3



1210



1500



1808



Working



2,1



554,7



1320



1629



1967



Retired



1,3



347,9



909



1144



1379



Children



1,8



498,2



1208



1499



1799



%
per capita income



210



205



189



205



218





Most
significant threshold changes
in consumption occurred in the first half
1992 and 1998, the second In 1992 it was connected
with the liberalization of prices and “shock therapy”.
Then the revenue (current and savings)
decreased more than 2 times. Financial
the crisis in August 1998 caused a sharp
the jump in prices for consumer goods
(more than a third in a short
time) and a new drop in consumer
demand and level of consumption (in August
this year, in just eight months
the growth of consumer prices
amounted to 149,6% overall for the year it was equal
184,4%). The real incomes of the population decreased
during these four months is 18.9%, over the
year by 18.5%. In September-December, 1998
real wages by months
compared to the corresponding period of the
the previous year was reduced accordingly
30.9, 32.8 million, 33,0, 39,1%.



Attempts
restore level of current income
have been made, but the fundamental
to change the situation have not yet succeeded.
The economic recovery observed in
the last three years, was summoned to
considerable extent the price factor, and
also, to some extent, increase
the competitiveness of domestic
as a result of the devaluation
of the ruble in August 1998, the state
policies to curb rising prices
energy and services of monopolies,
policy of the Central Bank growth of monetary
suggestions.



All this
allowed to increase the rate of economic
growth of 8.3% in 2000 and 5% in 2001, to increase
real wages by 20.9 and 19.8% in
2000 and 2001 Over the years the volume of production
industry and agriculture
grew respectively by 17.4 and 13.4%. But all
according to Goskomstat, the volume
production in 1999 and 2001 compared
1990 was, respectively, 49 and 57.6%
in the industry, and 58,3 66,1% in rural
economy. Real income to
2000 decreased by 50,28%, i.e., become less
more than 2 times in comparison with 1990
General for 2000-2001, they managed to raise
Of 15.7%, but compared to 1990 their value
was only 57.6 per cent. The average
the wages for 1990-1999
he has grown 4 times over the next two
of the year 2 times. But the average
the wages in the prices
1991 decreased by almost 3 times, reaching
34.7% of the 1991 level, If we compare the dynamics
assessed and real wages
Board, the situation will be even worse. So,
average monthly salary
charges (in prices of 1991) for the period from 1991 to
1999 decreased by 62.6 percent and 37.4 percent
the level of 1991 Real wages
during the same period decreased by 66.6%,
she was equal to 33.4% 1991 – 4%
less compared to the nominal
wages (table. 4). The difference between the
dynamics of real wages and
real money income for 1999 and 2001
G. left respectively of 17.6% and 10.7%,
total income 1991



Table
3.
Level
poverty9





















































































































































































































Year



1992



1993



1994



1995



1996



1997



1998



1999



2000



2001



Level
total unemployment



5,2



5,9



8,1



9,5



9,7



11,8



13,3



12,9



9,8



8,8



Cost of living
at least



1,9



20,6



86,6



264,1



By 369.4



411,2



493,3



907,8



1285



1524



Minimum
wages





4,3



14,6



20,5



63,3



83,5



83,5



83,5



83,5



300



The ratio
a living wage:



Srednedushevyh
cash income



210



220



238



195



207



227



203



177



195,4



195,4



Average
monthly nominal accrued
wages



281



254



226



159



190



206



189



152



204,6



204,6



Minimum
wages





0,21



0,17



0,08



0,17



0,20



0,17



0,092



0,065



0.197 inch



The number
population with income below the poverty
minimum (million persons)



49,7



46,9



33,3



36,6



32,7



30,7



35,0



43,8



42,3



39,8



% to the total
population



33,5



31,5



24,4



24,7



22,1



20,8



23,8



29,7



29,1



27



Including
children under 6 years



9,8





9,6







8,2



7,4



6,4







% to the total
the number of children of this group



31,6





26,2







22,9



25,6



29,2







From 7 to 15
years



18





20,2







21,9



20,4



18,6







% to the total
the number of children of this group



45,9





31,5







31,3



33,5



39,3







Women and
men who have reached retirement age
(over 55 and 60 years)



19,8





11.1 V







9,9



12,8



14,5







% to the total
the number of persons of this group



34,6





12,3







9,9



14,3



21,0








Special issue
— the official subsistence level,
adopted in our country. Even indexed
in accordance with rising prices, he absolutely
unsatisfactory from the point of view
it provides directions normal
of human reproduction. Cost of living
minimum (poverty line) according to the General
the economic situation in the country
should include a set of key
goods and services corresponding to
the standards of consumption at least
minimum reproduction level
given the level of prices. Structure of the consumption
prescribed for cost of living,
the current in Russia, can provide
the consumption of the family only on the lowest
the level of physical survival.
It does not include a non-elastic
costs, such as housing and utilities
payments, amortization of clothes and shoes
workers and members of his family (children)
the costs of transportation, necessary payment
some medical services. In families
with minimal income it is inevitable
leads to under-consumption products
power compared with their volume,
provided for cost of living.
And since the cost of living adopted
in Russia, only guarantees physical
the survival of the people, it is — the border is not
poverty and poverty.



CONCLUSION



In this
the abstract was made by me an attempt
to perform such a thing as
“poverty.” I was considered
different definitions of “poverty”,
analyzed the level and quality
life and the current state of Russia.



In Russia
now a difficult situation regarding
the considered problem. Most
of Russia’s population have incomes below the
the world’s average. Approximately 1/3 of the population
have incomes below the subsistence minimum,
i.e. 1/3 of the population is categorized as poor.
Poverty that swept Russia in the last
makes one rethink a
questions of our existence in the first place
on the market the reconstruction of society.



Strengthening
the impact of society on the adoption process
solutions is a necessary condition
improve the quality of life. One of the
instruments of this impact is
monitoring of the quality of life and development
person. Quality of life and development
people become this criterion
the efficiency of public
control.



The threat
impoverishment hangs over defined
socio-professional layers
population. “Social bottom” absorbs
peasants, workers nizkokaloriynoe,
engineering and technical personnel
teachers, intellectuals
scientists. The company has an effective
the mechanism of “suction” people on
“bottom”, the components of which
are the methods of the current
economic reforms, rampant
the activities of criminal structures and
the inability of the state to protect
its citizens.



Poverty
cannot decide
only a level of current income. There
two significant factors influencing
on the level of consumption, which should be
note in the definitions of poverty:
disposable items (for example,
housing, the second housing in the city, transport,
garage) and accumulation (including tesawalamai
jewels).



Perfect
the purpose of the fight against absolute poverty – its
absolute overcome in a healthy
society, and especially in social
the state should not be people who are not
having a living wage. Task
struggle with relative poverty – not
full of inequalities, but it
so to speak, optimization, conversion to
level, not beyond acceptable in
the society limits and however
not to undermine the incentives of socio-economic
activity. These limits, in turn,
depends on the state of society, its
socio-cultural traditions and themselves
often amenable to regulation.



Main
a weapon against poverty is such
the policy, aimed
on economic growth.



In our country
weak and social policy. It measures
quite adequate to the situation, and therefore
a poor man in Russia gets much
less assistance than the poor in other
countries. Another difficulty is the stratification of the
in terms of obtaining high-quality
medical and educational services.
Vital reform of medical
insurance and education conducted
so that and the poor these services
was available. Now this approach
no, the poor do not get any quality
medical care, no quality education,
in the latter case they do not receive
the chance to escape from poverty.



To win
to end extreme poverty, she
inherent in any society and always has
the place to be. Rich and poor always
was, is and will be the nature
person. Even V. petty, and then A. Smith
Marx wrote that it is “natural
the inevitable law of social development”.
The task is not to eliminate
poverty, eradicate the rich, and the search
acceptable solution, that would be the one and the other
life was good and every words of society
to perform its functions, and to
this is the eternal contradiction was directed
not at the destruction that has been, and
creation.




1
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population// Sociological researches.
– 2004 – №4. – 34C.





2
Belyaeva L. A. income inequality
in Russia. Reality and trends.//
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No. 11. – 32C.





3
Belyaeva L. A. income inequality
in Russia. Reality and trends.//
Sociological research. – 2007 –
No. 11. – 30C.





4
Davydova N. M.Sedova N. N. Material and property
characteristics and quality of life of the rich
and poor.// Sociological research.
– 2004 – №3. – 47s.





5
Davydova N. M.Sedova N. N. Material and property
characteristics and quality of life of the rich
and poor.// Sociological research.
– 2004 – №3. – 35S.





6
Cymbals I. P. Poverty and the poor in
Russia.// Scientific notes of the Russian
State-controlled
University. – 2006 – №2. – 75C.





7
Belyaeva L. A. income inequality
in Russia. Reality and trends.//
Scientific notes of Russian State
sociological University. – 2007
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8
Belyaeva L. A. income inequality
in Russia. Reality and trends.//
Scientific notes of Russian State
sociological University. – 2007
– No. 11. – 38C.





9
Sidorov V. A. the Impact of targeted social
help to change the level, depth and
the severity of poverty.// Sociological
research. – 2004 – №7. – 87с.





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