Speech breathing, voice, articulation, diction – Abstract , page 2


Voice



Often
to hear the complaints of teachers, lecturers on
voice that their “sums” appear
SIP, hoarseness, starts tickle in the throat,
the voice “sits” to the end of the speech.
Correct the situation can improve
voice technology. True, there are
the voices, the very nature,
but such cases are extremely rare. And yet
we can say that every person is entitled to
a voice that can be strong,
movable, flexible, sonorous and have
a wide range of. For this purpose it is necessary
“educate”, “put”, that is, to develop
and strengthened.


So
how do you raise and put the voice?


Physical
the basis of the sonority of the voices correctly
the delivered breath. Wrong
the breathing generates insufficient
sonority, which in turn
changes the sound color of the voice.


To educate
and deliver voice — this means:


a)
to train a skill right
diaphragmatic-costal breathing;


b)
learn how to use the resonators
(amplifiers audio).


As
to do this, it will be shown on the material
voice exercises.



Diction



Clear
diction — the first and prerequisite
good question. Negligence in pronouncing
making the speech slurred and unintelligible.
This is reflected in the “eating” end
or consonant sounds inside words
the sound “through his teeth”. Fixed
sluggish upper and lower lip prevents
crisp and clear pronunciation of many
whistling and hissing consonants. It
it is often illegible due to
tongue twisters, when words like
“run against” each other. To say
it is necessary gradually to accustom well to open
mouth as well opening my mouth
is an important condition for the formation of
sound and “promise”. Good diction
prepares vocal apparatus to
the creative process makes the familiar
accurate articulation of all speech sounds,
helps the expressiveness of speech.



The basis
clear and exact pronunciation of each
sound, the basis of the diction is
coordinated and enthusiastic efforts of all
muscles involved in the speech process.
Training exercises provide
the ability to develop and maintain their
elasticity and mobility.


In
training includes diction articulation
gymnastics:


a)
exercises to warm-up and workout
active muscles of the vocal apparatus, which
develop and strengthen the muscles of the mouth, jaw,
lips, tongue;


b)
exercises for proper testing
way of articulation of each vowel
and consonant sound.



Orthoepy



This section
where they study the rules and laws right
pronunciation unlike spelling
— the science about the correct spelling. The word
orthoepy is derived from the Greek words
orthos — straight, correct, and epos — speech, and
means “right speech”. All
obviously, what led to discord and
illiteracy in writing. Compliance with
General rules and laws in the pronunciation
it is also necessary, as in the letter.
Deviations from accepted norms hinder
linguistic communication, distracting the listener
from the meaning of spoken and hinder
the understanding of it. Therefore, learning Russian
literary pronunciation as well
important as the teaching of spelling and
grammar. Currently, when
speaking became a means of broad
communication at congresses, conferences and
meetings in theater and film, radio and
television, it should be flawless
in linguistic and phonetic design.



Pronunciation
the norms of modern Russian language
developed in the first half of the XVII century
simultaneously with the formation of the Russian
of the national language. Moscow is the political
and cultural center of the Russian state,
developed on the basis of Northern Russian
dialects and southern dialects of its Moscow
pronunciation. This speech has become the norm
the Russian literary language. Moscow
it was transferred to other cultural
centres and assimilated there on the basis of local
dialects. In the beginning of the XVIII century, when
the capital of the Russian state was
Petersburg, he gradually developed his own
the dialect, called “letter-by-letter”.
As stated and mentioned. But it
the pronunciation was common in
mostly in the circle of the highest Petersburg
bureaucracy and didn’t go further. This
by the way, the literary norm of the language
continued to be regarded as Moscow
pronunciation.



Now
a tremendous role in maintaining
exemplary literary pronunciation
belongs to the Moscow Art
academic theatre. M. Gorky
and Small academic theatre.



Orthoepy
covers the following topics: stress;
the rules of correct pronunciation of individual sounds and
combinations thereof; intonational-melodic
speech system.



Often we
the question arises, where to put emphasis,
on which syllable? The French, for example,
the emphasis is always put on last
syllable in the word. In Russian, the accented
not only phonological paradigmatic, that is, can
fall on any syllable, but also movably and
when you change grammatical forms
one and the same word stress changes
place. For example, the words “the city”,
“the city,” but “cities”, “cities” or
“accept”, “accept”, “accept”, but
“accept”, “accept”.



Sometimes we
hear “ringing”, instead of “calling”.
Correct to say “alphabet”, “contract”,
“the verdict”, “quarter”, “Institute
foreign languages”, “catalog”,
“obituary”, but “scholar,” etc.



If there is
the question is where to put the accent in
the word should refer to the dictionaries:
Russian literary pronunciation and
the emphasis. Ed. by R. I. Avanesov and S. I.
Ozhegov, S. I. Ozhegov. Dictionary of Russian
language; the Dictionary of accents for workers
radio and television. Under. edited by doctor of Economics
Rosenthal.



People from different
regions of our country often speak
local dialects and sub-dialects. There are
“okayuschie” and “akayuschie” dialects. In Moscow
Moscow region and Central
regions of the country “akayut” moderately. Here
this moderate “akan” became the norm
literary pronunciation, a symptom of
culture of speech.



In orthoepy
there is a law of reduction (weakening
articulation) vowels, which vowels
the sounds are pronounced without change only
under stress and in unstressed position
are reduced, that is, exposed
weakened articulation. For example,
milk. Of the three vowels of this word
only [O], standing for emphasis,
pronounced without change. The Sound [O],
standing closer to the drums sound,
reduced is something between
[A] and [O], denote it [a] little.
And finally, the sound [O], standing on the second
the spot from shock [About], almost completely
pronounced as would be “eaten up”,
let us denote the sound [b].


If
the word has vowels that stand at the 3rd and
4-th place from the shock, they also
are reduced to [b].


For example,
[b]ro[b]tnicos.


All
the sounds behind the drums, are reduced
to [b].


For example,
Ho[b]Ho[a]carcass[b].


If
unstressed sound [O] is at the beginning of words
it is pronounced always as [A].


For example,
on[e], CCW, [a], o[a]very much[b], [a]laziness.



In orthoepy
there is a rule according to which sonorous
the consonants B, C, D, e, F, 3 at the end of words
sound like a pair of them deaf P, f, K, T, W,
C. for Example: the forehead — lo[p], blood — KRO[f’],
eye — GLA[s], ice — Le[t], fright — COI[K].
(The sign ‘ indicates softness of the consonant).



In orthoepy
combination SI and learn inside
the root word, are pronounced as long
(double) soft sound [F]. For example: leaving
— weijiao, come — priezjay,
later Polje, reins — vogli, rattles
— dibilit. The word “rain” is pronounced
with a long soft [sh] (SLSI) or long
soft [F] (GIGI) before the combined train:
dollsi, doja, dolicek, Dolgit,
dogjam, gojevic.


Combination
MF and AF are pronounced as a long soft
the sound [U’]: happiness — the lots, the expense of the brush,
customer — zakashik.


In
some combinations of several
consonants one of them falls:
Hello — Hello, heart
heart, sun — sun.


Sounds
[T] and [D] soften before soft [In]
some of the words. For example: door —
diver, two — dive, twelve
dvenadcati, motion — dvizhenie,
Thursday — chetverg, solid — twardy,
branch — vative, but deuce, yard, supply.



In the words
“if”, “beside”, “after”, “am” sounds
[S] and [Z] are softened and pronounced:
“me”, “Vasile”, “posle”, “razve”.



In the words
ordinary, magnificent, special
and the other two are pronounced “H”.



Return
the particle seen in the verbs is pronounced
firmly — SA: umywalka, balsa, devals.
The combination of sounds, ST before a soft sound
[V] is pronounced softly: natural —
estestvenny, majestic —
velichestvenny.



Rules
orthoepy there are so many and
their learning should contact
the corresponding literature.



Preparatory
phase when learning the technique of speech, as we
said, includes samomassaj
and exercises for muscle relaxation.



Sometimes we
notice that the face of the lecturer stressed
he frowns, forehead, nose, suddenly appears
misplaced smile, one eyebrow raised
higher than the other. All this muscle “clips”.
Such a stress state of a person
the speaker distracts from the main point,
takes physical and mental strength,
which directly affects the
the quality of the performance.



To remove
the tension from the face, to relax it can
the use of so-called samomassazh.
Here we will look at two types:
hygienic and vibration.



Hygienic
massage is performed by stroking, with
this aktiviziruyutsya located
close to the skin nerve endings. This
massage has a dual role: it relieves
tension and stiffness of the facial,
facial muscles of the vocal apparatus,
the muscles of the hands, neck and enhances the tone of these
muscles, if they are lethargic and weak.



Vibrating
the massage is vigorous tapping,
while aktiviziruyutsya the nervous
endings, planted deeper in thicker
skin.



Self-massage
causes moderate extension
peripheral blood vessels and
has a beneficial effect on
nervous and other systems of the body.
Vibration massage — it is done
kind of the voice settings. As a musician
tunes before the show
tool like the ballerina, the gymnast before
performance make the warm up as a singer
configures, raspadas, your voice
and, reader, lecturer, speaker needs
customize your “tool”. During
vibration massage
included upper (skull,
the nasal cavity and the mouth) and lower (chest
cavity) of a system of resonators, which
enhance and enrich the sound of your voice.



And finally,
exercises on the muscular and emotional
relaxation — autogenic elements
workout. Look closely at
Fig. 2, which shows a representation
movements of the human body in the cortex
big hemispheres of a brain
the projection of the body in the cerebral cortex.

Fig.
2. The representation of movements in the crust
big hemispheres of a brain
human (Penfield). 1 — legs 2 —
torso, 3 — arm, 4 — person



You notice that
the face, the mouth and the hand
occupy a disproportionate amount of space
the cortical representation of the body,
and the trunk, hip and leg much less.
We can say that the speech activity
is determined by the activities of more
part of the cerebral cortex
of the brain. Face, muscles of the oral
holes and hands to send to the brain
the maximum number of signals about his
condition. The more signals, the
excited brain, and, conversely,
than excited the brain, the more
it sends impulses to the periphery.



That’s why
exercises in relaxation (relaxation)
absolutely necessary for people whose
work is constantly connected with the spoken
speech, therefore, with a higher voltage
of facial, masticatory, speech muscles
and muscle tension of the hands,
with great emotional and mental
voltage.



Method
autogenic training gives you the opportunity
person to manage their mental
and physical apparatus. Auditory training —
this is a set of different mental techniques
self-regulation of the human body.
Out of the whole system of auto-training will take
for our work the two simplest elements
the “posture” and “mask” relaxation, with
which will relieve the tension or
“clips” in the body and face. Practice
showed the effectiveness of the method of autogenic
training in an active method
psychoprophylaxis and mental health. In
currently it is used in a number
occupations associated with repetitive
stressful situations: aviation
and space fields, in preparation
athletes in training the actor
skills, etc.



So, we
this General concept about the foundations of art
speech, in particular, techniques of oral speech.
Further material will be presented
in the form of practical exercises for mastering
speech appliances.


A few
tips for practical lessons.


All
who begins to independently engage
the technique of speech, for successful work
it must be remembered that:


1.
All classes should be sure to start
full muscle relaxation is
a necessary condition to work on
voice and speech.


2.
To comply with the principle of
sequence. To begin with
the simplest and go to more
complex, slow, effortless and
the tedious tension. If you
will count on a quick result
you will not be able to achieve any results.
Therefore:


a)
you have to do it every day for 20 minutes
(10 min on breathing and voice exercises
10 min “dictionay charging”);


b)
each practice session to take place
in one or two weeks; only after
the assimilation of one class go to
the following;


in)
each exercise was repeated 4-5 times.


g)
when you exercise be sure
put them tasks: to praise,
to justify, to persuade, condemn, etc.


Compliance with
the principle of consistency not only
will bring success in work, but will raise
and harden will disciplinarum, strengthen
nervous system.


3.
Consistency and regularity —
a necessary condition to work on technique
speech. Reasonable and resistant sequence
will help to achieve good results.
Do not worry and do not despair when
the first failure, again and again repeat
exercise, but make sure it is
meaningful, and not mechanical, “all your
actions must first go through
head.” When doing this exercise,
think only about what you’re doing.
Remember that you are working arbitrary
conscious method, at the highest level
development of the human psyche,
stage of conscious control
speech activity and behavior. It
the path of self-improvement and education
personality.


4.
Observe the rules of hygiene and prevention
the voices and all the everyday life. (
hygiene and prophylaxis, see p.69).


5.
Acquired skills of speech breath
and diction do not use professional
of the question as long as you do not pass the whole
the course and these skills were not
involuntary.


6.
Continually monitor their speech in
daily life.


7.
Before proceeding to practical
employment, read this book carefully
to the end, understand the structure of the classes
and guidance, if need be,
then read it again, only after
this You can training to learn
exercises.



Conclusion



Beautiful
sonorous voice, clear, accurate and correct
speech, a diverse and deep tone
— of course the necessary funds
expressive of the living word. But let’s not
forget about such seemingly
insignificant moments in the work
the lecturer, as its appearance, gestures,
facial expressions, which are additional
means of expression of speech and
the necessary conditions for the establishment
contact with the audience.



Public
speech, whether it’s a lecture, report or
the statement in some measure is perceived
purely visual way. Listeners
pay attention to the clothing of the speaker
on the way he stands, the look on his face
person. For all care for
listeners and ultimately also
affects the the performance performance.



However, no
external methods will not provide the success
which give a deep knowledge of the lecturer,
his sincere belief and inner
the need to convey their knowledge to
audience. It forms skills,
speaker, which is achieved by constant
and systematic work of the lecturer on
a.



List
literature




  1. Volumes A.
    A. Personality and communication. M., 1983.



  2. Dobrovich A.
    B. the Teacher about the psychology and hygiene
    communication. M., 1987.



  3. Zimnyaya I. A.
    Educational psychology. Rostov-on-don,
    1997.



  4. Znakov V. V.
    Understanding in cognition and communication. M., 1994.



  5. Kagan M. S.
    The world of communication, Moscow, 1988.



  6. Kan-Kalik
    V. A. the basics of professional-pedagogical
    communication. Ivan, 1979.



  7. Leontiev A.
    A. the Psychology of communication. M., 1997.



  8. Petrovskaya
    L. A. Competence in communication.



  9. Rean A. A.
    Problems of diagnosis factors
    productive activities pedagogical
    team. L., 1988. 1988.




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