2.2. Razvitie avant-garde in
Developed as something exotic,
Avangard, who dreamed of following the romanticism
about the new genestelle finally
succeeded in being integrated
in society. Got used to it and it became
less hints of shocking.
Avant-garde thinking, his methods
design widely penetrated
designing of things and processes, in
the creation of the environment a fashion in itself
the “lifestyle”. A growing number of museums and
galleries representing their halls for
works of the avant-garde.
The avant-gardists wanted to “party
art” and, in the end, they
received in the form of “socialist
realism”(p. 1 No. 4-5). Although not all Russian
the avant-garde were associated with the policy
many remained true romantics
and idealists, in General, the avant-garde
testified to the defeat of the national
culture. This was reflected in the terminology.
The “illusionism” of classical painting
avant-garde, rejecting the notion
pictorialism in General, opposed
“visionism” (from the Latin visionis phenomenon).
Determining steel technicist
techniques and terms: collage, actionism,
For the avant-garde as it may seem
strange at first glance, more
suitable inertness of the development in the formation
the “new” (“new” — in the avant-garde
ideas). The evolution of some trends
during their apparent extinction, after
the strongest crises dragged on.
Dadaism, therefore, was developed into
introduced in 1924 (p. 2 No. 8) and survived
in the mid-30s of a major crisis,
claimed its existence in 1969.
the release of the new Manifesto, “the Fourth
song”; the abstract painting is not gone
to the present day; expressionism
evolved slowly and gradually
throughout the XX century.
As a rule, avant-garde
considered in chronological
order to separate “isms”: Fauvism, (p. 2
No. 6) expressionism, cubism, etc.
The development of the avant-garde, if so
used to be “multichannel,” and
should not be absolutized only
one way—from one “ISM” to another.
The more permanent operation
the only “isms” even more obscure
the General panorama.
In the history of the avant-garde name
any another “ISM” — the moment
external. It develops out of stylistic
standards and nominal classification
not be. Terms and concepts used
historians of the avant-garde, be
casual and usually wider or narrower
the phenomenon under consideration. Besides
the conventional notation and usage
a term constantly
increases. Terminological confusion
and simultaneous passion for this
terminology lead to inventing
new terms for the sake of building their own
historical research system.
Fauvism and expressionism
– the first avant-garde of the XX century.
Sonorous decorative open
pure color, flat , “carpeted”
the principle of composition, simplification of the figure,
“nature-motnost” vision that
determined the choice of plastic motives.
Literary and artistic
expressionism : a painful tension
emotions, mystery , irrational and rough
the grotesque underlying the art
vision expressionism, led to
cutting deformation shapes, contrast,
dissonant combinations of colour
relations, their expressive expression
the coarsening and simplification of the drawing. For
expressionism, as with most
avant-garde practices of the twentieth century, characterized
interest in the art of the primitive, ancient
cultures and archaic forms.
Cubism and futurism
– two main areas of art
avant-garde in European art
the first decades of the XX century Utopian
the principles of the avant-garde, the idea of “genestrerio”
and socio-artistic conversion
world. The Activity Of F. Marinetti, K. Carr,
A. St. Elia in Italy. Literary and
art Cubo-futurism in Russia
( Vladimir Mayakovsky, D. And V. Burlyuks, A. Kruchenykh,
M. Matiushin, K. Malevich, M. Larionov luchism,
creativity N.Goncharova). From Cubo-futurism
to the Suprematism of Malevich. The counter-reliefs
direction in the literature and visual
art that emerged in the early XX
century.Reserving for himself the role of prototype of the art of the future,
futurism as a major programme nominated
the idea of the destruction of cultural stereotypes and
offered in return a apologia technology and urbanism
as the main signs of the present and future
(p. 2 No. 7).
In the literature, the rejection of traditional
grammar. The right of the poet to his spelling.
The creation of words. Speed. Rhythm. In short,
all short-term achievements of civilization,
intoxicated by their technological advances.
Motorcycle been more perfect
creation than Michelangelo.
Proclaimed the pathos of destruction
and explosion. Praises of war and revolution,
as a rejuvenating force decrepit
world. It is possible to consider futurism as
a unique fusion of Nietzscheanism and
Manifesto of the Communist party.
Driving dynamics should come to
change the static pose of the sculptures,
paintings and portraits. The camera and
the camera will replace imperfection
painting and eyes.
The development of the analytical principles
cubism. Design of three-dimensional form
on the plane, the detection of primordial
any plastic form through the combination of
the simplest stable geometric
elements: the cube, cylinder and cone.
school (movement) artists, drawing
quickly and on large canvases, with
using non geometric
strokes, large brushes, sometimes dripping
paints on canvas for a total
emotion detection. Expressive method
painting here often has the same
value as the drawing.
Franz.-wooden horse), in a figurative
sense – incoherent baby talk,
for the European and American
the art, which arose as a protest against
traditional moral and cultural
values. Dadaism for the first time announced
yourself in 1915 in Zurich. According to the most
common version, the name
the current was chosen at random – pen
with a knife pointed at the page of a dictionary that
quite consistent with the irrational
the spirit of Dadaism(p. 5 No. 27-31).
Art during the First world
war ( 1910-ye gg.), the Impact of social and
the political turmoil in the state
culture and art in Europe.
The birth of the counterculture. Art
nihilism is the main principle and basis
avant-garde practices of Dada.
Pop art (eng. pop
art, short for popular art – popular
public art; and the second value
words associated with the onomatopoeic
eng. ROR – popping impact, cotton,
slap, i.e., producing shocking
effect) – the direction in art of the late
1950s – early 1970s; it occurs as the opposition
non-objective abstract art;
marks the transition to the new concept
avant-garde(p. 8 No. 50-57).
Op-art (abbr. from
eng. optical art – optical art) –
artistic movement, gave in the 1960s
. a new impetus to the development of abstract
art. Built in effects
the illusion works op art
create the illusion of (existing, true,
only in the mind of the viewer), move
objects in plane and space.
The undisputed leader in this direction
was Victor Vazareli (p. 6 No. 40-44).
The crisis of the avant-garde and the birth of
pop art, as the first manifestation of
postmodernism in art
culture. Postmodernism was the result
the negation of the negation. At the time
modernism rejected the classical,
academic art and turned to
new art forms, often not
creating anything viable.
The installation of “avant-garde”,
makes the characters “new” culture
to find a extreme shape for their
gestures, however, this extreme before
or later, in conflict with
established formal requirements
such gestures; the artist or
rejected by the community, or forced
to obey the established inside
community rules. Critics of speculative
(or evidence?) already identified main
stream and thoroughly reject all that
their opinion lies on the side of the process.
Bauhaus, Hochschule für Bau und Gestaltung — High school
construction and art
design, or Staatliches Bauhaus) —
the school that existed in
Germany from 1919 to 1933, as well as art
Association arising under this
institutions, and appropriate direction
in architecture (p. 7, No. 45-49).
The leading role of architecture in
define the stylistic forms of art.
The search for new architectural solutions
and aesthetic quality of materials and technical
features of the new industrial
industry. The cult urbanism. Activities
the group “Bauhaus”
and theoretical foundations of the European
functionalism. The desire for unity
style and the creation of aesthetically
the transformed environment. The Role Of W. E. Le Corbusier
in the development of modern architecture.
Greatest architects of the XX century – M. brayer,
T. Granier, B. Gropius, Mies van der Rohe
Nervi O., O. Niemeyer, O. Parra and F. L. Wright.
“Walter Gropius” – was
the founding father of the Bauhaus. Main
the guiding idea of the Bauhaus activities
maximum introduction art
in the mass production. Manifesto
that time could serve as the motto of the first
the exhibition projects of the Bauhaus, which opened
in 1923: “Art and technology –
In fact, Bauhaus
laid the foundations for the understanding of Design as
comprehensive discipline, defining it
the main directions and methods
of the teaching profession. Still
propaedeutics almost without exception,
designer educational institutions all over the
the world is built on Boukhanovsky programs
developed and first used
Itanom, Schlemmer, Albers, Kandinsky
In addition, Bauhaus
introduced innovative artistic contribution
in theatre, photography, graphics, font,
architecture – in all directions
visual design and creativity.
The artistic culture of Europe
and America between the two wars ( 1920-1930-s
years). The relative stabilization
public and political life
Europe. Increasing social orientation
of literature and art. The impact of shocks
wars and revolutions on the contents and
figurative system of art. Development
idealistic philosophy. Birth
his growing influence on the development of
literature, cinema and theatre, visual
1920-ies. Development official
national style , designed
to Express the main ideological
installation and national socialist
ideas (p. 4 No. 21-26). An appeal to the national
traditions of realistic painting and
Urban planning and architectural
initiatives to create new urban
areas, public buildings and sports
structures such as the representation method
The new organization art
activities in the USSR. Soviet architecture
1930s. The plan of reconstruction of Moscow.
The construction of the first stage of the Moscow
metro. The Work Of I. Fomin
K. Alabyan, A. Dushkin, B. Iofan, and