The physical condition of the female body – Abstract


The contents

Contents 2

Introduction 3

1.Tasks of physical education to strengthen
health 5

2. The endurance of the female body
when exercising 5

3. The change of physical state
the female body with age 9

Conclusion 13

Bibliography 14


The very nature ordered
so that person needs to develop
their physical abilities.

The child not yet born, and his
future development is already interconnected with the
physical activity. Need
in motion is a characteristic
a feature of the growing organism.

Unfortunately, a grown woman
feels much less need
in the movements than the girl. But the movement
necessary as food and sleep. The lack of
eating and sleeping is captured by the body,
calling the whole complex painful

Same motor failure
goes completely unnoticed, and
often accompanied by even feeling
comfort. With the shortage of motor
activity decreases stability
of the body to colds and action
pathogens. Women
leading a sedentary lifestyle, often
suffer from diseases of the respiratory system
and blood circulation.

Reduction in motor
activity in conjunction with the violation
mode litany and in the wrong way
of life leads to excess
body mass due to the deposition of fat in

It is proven that women have
mental labor the muscular activity
causes the force of the flow of positive
impulses in the cerebral cortex and
improves those areas that
already included in certain activities
at the moment. Work, sports, physical
culture is extremely important for the health
every female.

A huge number of women
of different ages engaged in recreational
physical culture in order to
to improve health, improve health,
be strong, agile, hardy,
to have a slim figure, well-developed
muscles. Doing physical exercises,
a woman enters the world of new sensations
positive emotions, finds a good
mood, vigor, vitality,
feeling a surge of strength.

  1. Tasks of physical education to strengthen

Training health
physical culture have their
methodological features based on
age, type of employment,
lifestyle, individual inclination
and interests, individual empowerment

Development of methods of classes
Wellness exercise
must be highly professional
experts in the field of physical
culture, as a wrong technique
run can lead to serious
consequences, even to the injury. Physical
exercises must be properly
designed and detailed.

Physical technology
mainly aimed at: strengthening
health; hardening of the body and
the livelihood of all its
systems; the strengthening of protective forces of organism;
increase level of mental and motor
health; possible elimination of the
functional disorders in physical
development; instilling in women the belief
of the need to regularly engage in
physical culture and sports1.

2. The endurance of the female body in
physical education

Health is not only
the absence of disease, certain
the level of physical fitness,
fitness, functional
the condition of the body, which is
the physiological basis of physical
and mental well-being. On the basis of
the concept of physical (somatic)
health (G. L. Apanasenko, 1988) , the main
its criteria should be considered
the energy potential of a biosystem, since
the livelihoods of the female body
depends on consumption
energy from the environment, its accumulation
and mobilization to ensure
physiological functions. At The B. I.
Vernadsky, the female body is
an open thermodynamic
system resilience
(viability) is determined by its
the energy potential. The more power
and capacity utilization potential
as well as the effectiveness of its spending,
the higher the level of women’s health. So
as the proportion of aerobic energy production
is predominant in the total amount
potential it is the maximum
the value of aerobic capacity of the organism
(IPC) is the main criterion
physical health and vitality.
This notion of biological essence
health fully meets our
ideas about the aerobic
performance, which is
the physiological Foundation of General endurance
and physical performance (their
the value is determined by the functional
reserves the basic life support systems
– the circulatory and respiratory system). This
by the way, the main criterion of health
should be the value of the IPC this
women. It is a quantitative MPK
the expression level of health indicator
“the number of” health2.

In addition to the IPC an important indicator
the body’s aerobic capacity is
the threshold level of anaerobic metabolism
(PANO), which reflects the efficiency
aerobic process. PANO matches
this intensity of muscle activity,
in which oxygen is clearly not enough
full of energy, dramatically
intensified processes of anoxic
(anaerobic) energy for
by splitting substances rich
energy (creatine phosphate and glycogen
muscle) and accumulation of lactic acid.
When the intensity of the PANO
the concentration of lactic acid in the blood
increases from 2.0 to 4.0 mmol/l, which is
biochemical criterion PANO. Value
IPC characterizes the capacity of the aerobic
process, i.e. the amount of oxygen
which the body is able to absorb
(consume) per unit time (1 min)
. It depends mainly on two factors:
the functions of the oxygen-transport system
and ability of working skeletal
muscles to absorb oxygen. Capacity of blood
(the amount of oxygen that can
to bind 100 ml of arterial blood at the expense of
the coupling of the hemoglobin) in
depending on level of fitness
ranges from 18 to 25 ml. In
venous blood Oleksa from working
muscles, contains no more than 6-12 ml of oxygen
(per 100 ml of blood) . This means that
highly skilled athletes
when the hard work can consume
to 15-18 ml of oxygen from each 100 ml of blood.
When you consider that during training on
endurance runners and skiers
minute volume of blood may increase
up to 30-35 l/min, then the specified number
ensure blood delivery to working
the muscles of oxygen and its consumption to
5,0-6,0 l/min – this is the value of the IPC.
So, the most important factor
the determining and limiting the magnitude of
maximum aerobic performance
is the oxygen-transport function
blood, which depends on the oxygen
capacity of the blood, and contractile
and pumping function of the heart that determines
the efficiency of the circulation3.

Not less important are
themselves “consumers” of oxygen
-working skeletal muscle. In its
the structure and functionality
there are two types of muscle fibers –
fast and slow. Fast (white)
muscle fibers is a thick fiber,
capable of great strength and
the speed of muscle contraction, but not
adapted to continuous operation
endurance. In fast fibers
dominated by anaerobic mechanisms
energy. Slow (red)
fiber adapted for long
low-intensity work – due to the large
the number of blood capillaries content
myoglobin (muscle haemoglobin) and
greater activity of oxidative
enzymes. This oxidative muscle
cells, energy which
is carried out by aerobic (due to
oxygen consumption) .

Another component of aerobic
the performance of the body – stocks
the main energy substrate
(muscle glycogen) that define
the capacity of the aerobic process, i.e.
the ability for a long period of time to maintain
the level of oxygen consumption close
to the maximum. This so-called
hold time IPC. Glycogen stores
in skeletal muscle in untrained
people make up about 1.4%, and the masters of
sport is 2.2%. They can grow under
the influence of endurance training
from 200 to 300-400 g, which is equivalent to 1200 -1600
kcal of energy (1G of carbohydrates by oxidation
gives 4,1 kcal) . The maximum value
aerobic capacity was observed in runners THINK
long-distance skiers, and
capacity – the marathon runners and
cyclists-roadies, i.e. in such
sports that require maximum
the duration of muscle activity.

The relationship between aerobic
features of the female body and
the condition was first
discovered by the American doctor Cooper
(1970) . He proved that people who have
IPC 42 ml/min/kg and above, do not suffer
chronic diseases and have
blood pressure
the normal range. Moreover, there was
the close relationship of the magnitude
IPC and risk factors for CHD: the higher the level
aerobic capacity, the better
blood pressure,
holesterinova metabolism and body mass.
Thus, endogenous risk factors
IBS are formed only at lower
aerobic capacity to a certain
limit. Limit (threshold) value
IPC for women – 35 ml/ min/kg, which
referred to as safe level
somatic health. Data are available,
that the value of aerobic capacity
can serve as highly informative
criterion for the prediction of death is not
only from cardiovascular disease,
but the result of malignant
neoplasms (B. M. Lipovetsky, 1985) .
In this regard, currently, there has been
the tendency of quantitative approach to
the assessment of the level of health (N. M. Amosov, Ya.
A. Bendet, 1984) . According To N. M. Amos, “the number”
health is determined by the amount of the reserve
capacity of oxygen-transport system
(IPC). Depending on the magnitude of the IPC for
untrained people stand out 5
functional classes, or levels,
physical condition. Absolute
the values of the IPC depend on the mass of the body,
so women have these indicators on
20-30% lower than men’s. However
comparison of the relative performance
per 1 kg of body mass these differences in
largely mitigated.

3. The change of physical state
the female body with age

For a more precise definition
physical state made
to evaluate it in relation to the due
the values of IPC (DMPK), corresponding
average normal values for this
of age and gender. They can be calculated
for women: DMPK= 44 – (0.20 X age). Knowing
should the value of IPC for a given individual
and its actual value can
to determine the % DMPK: %DMPK=IPCDMPK*100%.
The determination of the actual value of the IPC
the direct method is difficult,
therefore, in physical education a wide
widespread indirect
methods for the determination of maximal aerobic
performance by design4.

The most informative
is a test PWC170 physical
working at a heart rate of 170 beats/min.
The subject is offered two relatively
small loads on Bicycle Ergometer
(for 5min. each, with a rest interval
3min.). At the end of each load (for
the achievement of steady state)
calculated heart rate

The calculation is made
the formula: PWC170=N1+(N2 — N1) *(170-f1/f2-f1) (4) –where
N1 – the capacity of the first load; N2мощность
second load; f1 – heart rate at the end of the first
load; f2 – the heart rate at the end of the second load.

Estimated value of the IPC (l/min)
is determined by the formula of V. L. Karpman
for women with a low degree
training: MPK=1,7*PWC170+1240.

The calculation of the IPC by the formula Dobalina
requires a single load
submaximal power on the Ergometer
or Step-test: IPC = 1,29* root of
N/f-60*T where T is the age coefficient;
f is the heart rate at the 5th
minute of operation; N is the load power.

In the mass survey
women in Wellness
physical culture, the value of the IPC and
the physical state can
help determine the 1,5-ilen test
Cooper in vivo training.
To perform this test, we need
to run with the maximum possible
speed distance 2400 m (6 laps of
A 400-meter track stadium) . When
the comparison of the test results
data obtained in the determination of
The PWC170 cycle Ergometer (B. G. Milner, 1985)
identified a high degree
correlation between them,
that allowed us to calculate the linear
regression equation: PWC170=(33,6—1,3 Tk) +-1,96,
where Tk – the Cooper test in fractions of minutes
(for example, the test result is 12 min 30 s
equal to 12.5 min) and PWC170 measured in
KGM/min/kg. Knowing the value of the PWC170 test,
formula (5) we can calculate the IPC and
to determine the level of physical condition
test. The approximate level of the IPC
you can define it by using the 12 minute
test Cooper, as between the speed
run and oxygen consumption also
there is a direct correlation
dependence. For this you need to measure
the distance that the subject is able
run for 12 min on the track stadium
with a maximum speed. You need
remember that this test cannot be applied
unprepared student.

Assessment of physical
the state can be made not only
the magnitude of the IPC, but also the performance of direct
physical health. To them
include submaximal test PWC170 and
velo – Ergometer test. These indicators
are measured in units of power running
the work (KGM/min or watts) . With age
the functionality of the device
blood circulation lower, so
the capacity is determined by: for women
40 years old – with HR 150уд/min PWC170, 50 years – 140, 60
years 130уд/min on the average
the performance test PWC170 in young women
– 700 KGM/min not More informative
absolute and relative values
dough capacity per 1 kg of weight
body: for young men average
is 15.5 KGM/min/kg for women
10,5 KGM/min/kg5.

Such an evaluation system level
health can be used
sanatoriums in
medical-sports clinics
or the offices of medical.

Quantitative assessment of the level
physical state (UFS) provides valuable
data on health status and
functionality women’s
body that allows you to take
the necessary prevention of diseases
and health promotion. Found that
the development of chronic somatic
disease occurs on the background of reducing
UFS to a certain critical value.
So, when mass examination of persons with
different physical state (G. L.
Apanasenko, 1988) discovered that
the incidence has increased in parallel
lower UFS. In the group surveyed
high UFS (101% DMPK and higher) is not detected
chronic somatic diseases,
in the group with UFS above average (91 – 100% DMPK)
the disease was detected in 6% of all surveyed,
in the group with an average of UFS (75-90% THINK different
chronic diseases already at 25%


it was considered in Ancient Greece and Rome
the most important methods for the treatment of many
diseases. Ancient Greek
scientist the physician Herodek (500 the year before
BC), among which were
the father of medicine, Hippocrates, claimed not
without reason that the origin
most of the diseases inherent error
in nutrition and physical activity. In
subsequently, Hippocrates wrote: “Gymnastics,
physical exercises, walking needs
a firm part of everyday life of everyone,
who wants to maintain performance,
health, full and joyful

Health is the first and
the most important need of women,
defining ability to work and
providing harmonious development
personality. It is the most important
a prerequisite to the knowledge of the
world-affirmation and happiness
women. Active long life is
an important component of the human factor.
By definition of the world organization
health (B03) “health is
the state of physical, spiritual and
social wellbeing and not merely
the absence of disease and physical

Healthy and spiritually Mature
happy woman – she
feels gets satisfaction from
their work, committed to
perfection, reaching
unfading youth of spirit and internal

What would be complete
medicine, it can not save people
all diseases. Man is the Creator himself
his health, for which we must fight.
From an early age need to
active lifestyle, tempered,
physical activity and sports,
observe the rules of personal hygiene –
in short, to seek reasonable ways
true harmony health.


used literature

  1. Balsevich
    V. K. Physical activity.
    – M., 2004 Sport.

  2. P. Gotovtsev
    I., Dubrovsky, V. L. Self-control in
    physical culture lessons. – M.

  3. Demin D. F.
    Medical supervision in training the FC. –
    Moscow, Physical culture and sport, 2003.

  4. Mohylanska
    R. E. Sport and age. – M., 2001.

  5. Popular
    medical encyclopedia. Main
    the editor of the academician Petrovsky, B. V. M.,

The popular medical encyclopedia.
Editor in chief academician Petrovsky
B. V. M., 2004, p. 15

Mohylanska R. E. Sport and age. – M.
2001, p. 22

Gotovtsev P. I., Dubrovsky, V. L. Self-Control
at physical culture lessons. –
M., 2003, p. 77

Demin D. F. Medical control in
classes of FC. – Moscow, Physical culture and sport,
2003, p. 44

Balsevich, V. K. Physical activity
person. – M Sport 2004, p. 113

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