The typology of the family and individual – Abstract , page 3


3. Social
personality typology



The concept
personality is one of the major in sociology
since in the framework of micro-level human
cognition, man is the main
subject. Hence a number of of the concepts
used in sociology to analyze.
These concepts – person, individual, personality.
The term “person” expresses the unity
biological and social, as if
Reaffirming that man is part
of wildlife and some natural
the peculiar he, like others
representatives of the animal world. Philosophers
centuries argue, what more in
man – animal or social?
The problem of correlation of biological
and social in man is not simple, but
it is obvious that the formation of man
influenced by both biological and social
factors.



The concept
“man” is used to characterize
universal, inherent in all people qualities
and abilities. This concept emphasizes
the presence of the world so special historically
developing a common, as a human
the genus (Homo sapiens).



The individual –
this is an isolated member of the human
kind, the specific carrier of all social
and psychological traits of humanity:
intellect, will, needs, interests
etc. the Individual – most used
the term, which refers to a kind of
the average unit without
individual qualities and usually
used in the context of “one of…”
A social group consists of individuals
each of them has qualities
groups, but not private properties.
If this is not fixed neither age nor
gender or temperament, and other qualities.
However, there’s a huge difference
between man and child, man
primitive society and modern
man. To reflect
specific historical features
of human development at various levels
its individual and historical
development, along with the concept of the individual
used the concept of identity. The individual
in this case, considered as
the starting point for the formation of
personality personality is the result of the development
individual. Personality – the totality,
the combination of social qualities in
a certain person. Personality characteristic
personality. Personality
implies qualities
only to the individual.



Personality
is the object of study of a number of
Humanities: philosophy, psychology
and sociology. Philosophy considers
personality from the standpoint of its provisions
the world as a subject of activity, cognition
and creativity. Psychology studies personality
as a sustainable integrity
psychological processes, properties, and
relations of temperament, character,
abilities, volitional qualities, etc.
Sociology also highlights the personality
sociological. The main issues
sociological theory of personality associated
with the processes of identity formation, it
socialization, communities, relationships
personality and different communities, etc.
The formation of personality in sociology
considered in the context of two
interrelated processes – identify
and socialization. Sociology has
many theories of personality. All the theories
recognize the human personality
specific education directly
derived from social factors. In
the basis of the doctrines lies the confidence
that self-realization as human beings
possible only through the state. This
the look dates back to Democritus,
proclaiming that the state
presented by common good and the state
above all. The same views
adhered to G. V. F. Hegel and N.
Machiavelli. There is a theory of personality
as subject and object of activity and
communication in Marxist sociology.
Plays a significant role
a theory of personality (it was developed by C. H.
Cooley, R. Dahrendorf, R. Merton, etc.).
Proponents of the theory of roles come from
the fact that personality is a function of the
a set of social roles that
takes the the individual in society, and
therefore, social role acts
the most important element of the mechanism
the interaction of the individual and society.



Personality
as a subject of social relations, first of
all, characterized by autonomy,
a degree of independence
from society, able to oppose
themselves to the society. Personal independence
paired with the ability to dominate
themselves, and this in turn implies
the presence of the individual identity, i.e.
not just consciousness, thought and will, and
the ability to self-analysis, self-assessment,
self-control. Self-consciousness
transformirovalsya in life position.
Position in life is a
a principle of conduct based on
understandings, social
values, ideals and norms of the individual,
readiness to action.



SOCIAL
PERSONALITY TYPES



In the person
infused and isolated truths
features. As an active element
social systems, personality carries
your own choice from the available
possibilities, aims,
mobilized for its implementation. In his
social reality
largely determines the direction
and maintenance activities of the individual.
Proponents of the theory of roles come from
the fact that personality is a function of the
a set of social roles that
takes the the individual in society, and
therefore, social role acts
the most important element of the mechanism
the interaction of the individual and society.
Stratification of a society affects the choice
social roles and makes inevitable
the formation of different personality types
(the identity of the worker, the identity of the intellectual,
Manager’s personality, the personality of the doctor
etc.). Distinguish basic personality
(the person with the most
common in the population
features) and the ideal of personality (personality,
which society declares
a kind of benchmark).



There
several approaches to the problem of separation
personality types. The most common
following the approach. Each time creates
in society certain types, they can
described as normative (modal)
– it is a abstract image, incorporated
the most typical, characteristic
for a given era. This socio-historical
personality type (intellectual, revolutionary,
the white guard, a new Russian). His contribution
in the typology of the sociology of personality made
German sociologist R. Dartford,
starting from the concept of Aristotle –
“geopoliticus” – people political.
Dahrendorf called 4 type:




  1. Homofaber
    – a person working, ie people
    bearing the imprint of social
    affiliation (politician, intellectual).



  2. Homeconsumer
    – man-to-consumer products
    mass culture, mass-average type
    his time in the cultural and moral
    aspect.



  3. Gameuniverse
    – people changing classes. If
    the farmer of the 19th century that people of the same species
    activities, a modern mass
    people for even one day
    changes many activities – at work
    he is a professional in the transport he
    the passenger in the shop – the buyer
    evening party any
    actions (for example, a viewer in the theater).



  4. Gomosovetikus
    – the Soviet people, person, dependable
    from the state, private, or stressed
    Patriotic, collectivist. Another
    synonym – dimensional man: at work
    he is a cog, outside of work these people as copies
    similar to each other.




Typology
personality has different approaches and she
multivariate typology. E. Fromm
proposed to introduce 2 social type –
necrophilia and biofile. As those and other
rare. C. G. Jung shared
humanity for extroverts and
introverts. Thus, we can
to say that sociological concepts
“person”, “individual”, “personality” are
the key to a number of researchers
society and personality is the name
household name because it embodied
certain socio-psychological,
socio-historical types. Personality
acts as the object of influence
social environment and society. This
insisted Marx in the social
determinism.



4.
Personality as an active subject.
The problem of sociological, social
control
and deviation



The formation of
identity in sociology is considered
in the context of two interrelated
processes of identification and socialisation.



Socialization
is the process of assimilation by the individual
patterns of behavior, social norms and
values necessary for successful
functioning in a given society. It
there is socialization – that’s the way
purchased installation, the corresponding
social roles. Socialization covers
all the processes of acculturation,
training and education, which
the person gets social in nature
and the ability to participate in social
life.



Socialization
involves the formation and
intellectual, social,
the physical skills. Socialization as
the process is a:
side transfer society
the socio-historical experience, culture,
the rules and regulations of conduct and values
benchmarks, on the other hand, their
the assimilation by the individual. In addition,
socialization implies
twofold process: a process of gradual
disclosure in the individual’s natural qualities
and the process of external influence
(targeted and non-directional
education). Therefore, in the process
socialization play a huge role not
only natural inclinations of man, but
and social environment, with its diverse
spheres, circles of human communication
(expressed in the structure of its social
role), the subjects of socialization (or agents
socialization – those who it affects
of the individual) with their mechanisms of ideological,
pedagogical, moral,
aesthetic and other impacts
on the thinking and behavior serializermessages
person. The social environment with its various
spheres (social, economic,
political, cultural, etc.) is
an objective factor of socialization.
I.e. the main agents of socialization
are family, different types of community
(groups, ethnic groups, nationalities, classes,
social groups, society in General – all
that includes and surrounds
person). Each sphere of social life
(material and spiritual) involved in
the process of socialization – focused
and non-Directive education. Special
the role review processes
socialization at the micro level, i.e. in
the direct environment of the person.
In the process of socialization takes
the participation of the whole environment of the individual: family,
neighbors, peers, school, tools
media, etc. Socialization,
like any other social process,
is characterized by the periodicity and
phasic flow. In the domestic
sociology is allocated 3 periods
socialization (datadawai, labor and
poslerodovm) and 4 stages – early (up to
school), education, social maturity,
the completion of the life cycle. Processes
socialization in each period have their
the specifics of when into effect
various social institutions (agents
socialization). In the first stage agent
socialization is primarily
family, on the second school, etc. Main
the object of sociology from the point of view of Cooley
are small groups (family, neighbors,
school staff, sports,etc.)
in the depths of which are
basic social communication and socialization
personality. Man is aware of himself, watching
for other members of the group, constantly
comparing yourself to them. Society
can exist without mental
reactions of mutual evaluations. Thanks
mutual contacts people are aware of
social values, acquire
social skills and experience of public
behavior. Man is man
due to its interaction with other
people in small primary
groups.



Process
socialization reaches a certain
the degree of completion when reaching the
personality integrated social
status. Naturally, the process of
socialization is most intense in
the period of childhood and youth, but the development
personality continues to Mature
age, and old age. So many
sociologists believe that the socialization process
continues throughout life. Although socialization
children and adults is substantial
differences. Socialization adults
characterized in that it mainly
change external behavior (socialization
children, formation of values
orientations), adults are able to evaluate
standards (children and the only to learn them).
Socialization of adults has the purpose of
to help the person to acquire defined
skills. For example, to master new
social role after retirement
the change of profession or social status.
Another perspective on socialization
adults is that adults
moving away from the naive
children’s ideas (e.g., about
the firmness of the authorities, about the
absolute justice, etc.), from
notions that there is only
black and white. In the future, agent
of socialization are, in addition
other things, and the media,
along with other agents
can generate ideas about
values and norms of behavior in society,
particularly active in this regard, the TV.



But socialization
not only gives the individual the opportunity
to integrate into society and to address
among themselves through the development
of social roles. It also provides
the preservation of society. Although the number of
its members are constantly changing, as
people are born and die, socialization
contributes to the preservation of society
instilling new citizens accepted
ideals, values, and behavior patterns.



Thus, the essence
the socialization process is
that socialization has two goals:
to help the individual to integrate
in a society based on social roles and
to ensure the preservation society thanks
the assimilation of its new members current
in society beliefs and patterns of behavior.



Social
values function as moral
regulators of human behavior. Values
allow the person to develop internal
the position in relation to the external world,
to their deeds. Value is what
we consider it more meaningful to
man, it is a common belief
concerning goals towards which people
must strive for. They form the basis of
moral principles. In the Christian
morality, for example, there are Ten
commandments that are forced to admit
the value of human life – “not
kill”, the value of loyalty – “not
commit adultery”, etc. Therefore,
social value is what
significantly, it is important that he wants to have a personality
and valued by society. There are 2 level
social values: group values
and values of society. But in the last
time in the public consciousness and in science
was important to note the universal
values. Group (corporate)
values are peculiar to an organization,
small group. Social values –
these are the values that dominate in
given society. In American society
appreciate the confidence, ability
anger management, assertiveness. In the Indian
the society appreciate the contemplation,
passivity and mysticism. How
very different culture of different
societies, so may vary
and their values.



Last
polls show that among
values of modern man
lead: health, family, material
prosperity, security, stability,
democracy, love, collectivism,
patriotism, religious values.



Social
values can be classified into:



– political
patriotism, citizenship,
democracy, freedom, rights;



– religious
– the commandments, the symbols;



moral
– honor, conscience, dignity, mercy,
decency;



– economic
– money, prosperity, property;



cultural
– language, traditions, art, etc.



In society
formed the value orientation,
ie the available values are
the benchmark for all, most or
many citizens. They live, act,
build your life in accordance with these
values. In any society, usually
there are different values – traditional
and new, General interest and corporate
which often are in conflict:
to be merciful means to give
for the rich to take. From here the story
human society is the history of the struggle
for those or other values. Trying to leave
the situation of this fight different value
landmarks, mankind since ancient times
tried to develop a universal,
universal values – universal
values. Relatively uncontroversial
are values such as democracy
and religious values. Moreover,
in many world religions commandments
coincide and currently search
global religious value
the basics is in two ways:




  1. Higher
    the structure of these faiths realize
    search.



  2. The part of the faithful
    trying to do it.




Universal
values are desired, but not yet
a clear reference point to which humanity
committed. The specifics of the Russian
companies is that we
there is a change of social values
and guidelines.



List
references




  1. Weber M.
    Basic sociological concepts /
    Per. with it. M. I. Levina // Weber M. Izbrannye
    works – M., 1990.



  2. Simmel G.
    Social differentiation. // Texts
    in sociology XIX
    XXcenturies.
    Reader. – M., 1994



  3. I. S. Kon
    Positivism in sociology. – M., 1964.



  4. Kovalevsky
    M. M. essay on the origin and development
    family and property. M., 1989.



  5. Cooley C. H.
    The public organization. The study
    in-depth mind. //Texts
    sociology XIX
    XX
    centuries. Reader. – M., 1994.



  6. Weber M.
    Science as a vocation / TRANS.
    with it. A. F. Filippov, P. P. Gaidenko //
    Weber M. Selected works.
    1990.



  7. Sorokin P.
    “The crisis of our time.” /Sorokin P.
    “Man. Civilization. Society.”, –
    S. 498.



  8. Durkheim E.
    On the division of social labor. Method
    sociology. M” 1991.



  9. Durkheim E.
    Value and “real” judgments //
    Durkheim E. Sociology. Its subject,
    method, purpose. M., 1995.



  10. Durkheim E.
    Sociology and social Sciences // Durkheim
    E. Sociology. Its subject, method,
    purpose. M., 1995




sociological
knowledge of family identity

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