The war of the two Pedro – Abstract


Introduction


The war of the two Pedro
(Spanish La Guerra de los Dos Pedros, cat. Guerra dels
dos Peres) — armed conflict between
the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon,
occurring in 1356-1375. His
the name received in connection with the names
the leaders of the warring parties:
Pedro of Castile and Pedro IV of Aragon.
Considered as part of the Centennial
war.



1.
The background


In the middle of the XIV century
Castille had been weakened by the civil
the war caused by the struggle for the throne
king Pedro of Castile and his
illegitimate brother Enrique. Pedro
Aragon in this fight supported
Enrique of Castile, who had received
also the support of the French troops under
the leadership of Bertrand de Guesclin. With
its part, the British had
help Pedro of Castile. One of the
the purposes of the king of Castile was
the accession of the Kingdom of Valencia.
For his part, Pedro of Aragon
sought control over the Mediterranean
the sea that has met opposition
from Castile and its ally Genoa.
Relations between the two countries escalated
in connection with the incident that took place in
Mediterranean sea: the commander of the flotilla
Catalan galleys Francisco de Perellos,
a privateer had a letter from Aragon
the king took part in the fight against
the British on the side of France, and more
the fact, captured in a sea battle two Genoese
vehicle near sanlúcar de Barrameda.
Pedro of Castile, being an ally
Of Genoa, at the head of his fleet went
in pursuit of the enemy. The king caught
Perellos near Tavira, but was unable
to capture him prisoner. This event
gave rise to the beginning of the war.



2.
The course of the war


Begun in the year 1356,
the war lasted until 1375. War
stretched in connection with the termination
civil war in Castile. Conflict
proceeded on the border between the two
States near the Aragonese border
cities. In 1357 the troops of Castile
invaded Aragon and 9 March captured
The Tarazona. Soon the armistice was signed.


In the beginning of 1361, troops
Of Castile captured the fortress of Verdejo,
Torrijos, Alhama and other fortified
items. May 18, 1361, peace was concluded
in Terrera, according to which all
captured castles and towns were returned
to the former owners. Pedro IV married his
daughter Constance married, Federigo
Aragon.


In June 1362, Pedro
Castile met with Charles
Navarre, in Soria, agreeing with him
on mutual assistance. He also made an Alliance
with the king of England Edward III and his son,
The Black Prince.


With the support of
these rulers, Pedro of Castile without
formal Declaration of war again
invaded Aragon. The Castilian troops
captured several Aragonese fortresses
(Terrier, Moros, Cetin, etc.). Castilian
the king failed to capture Calatayud,
despite the fact that the Castilian troops
had powerful artillery. Without
forces to continue the offensive,
the king has returned to Seville.


Next year
Castilian troops again invaded
Aragon, capturing the Sochi. Pedro
Castile received reinforcements from
Portugal and Navarre. Meanwhile
the Aragonese king made an Alliance with
And France had signed a secret Treaty
with Enrique II of Castile. King Of Castile
took Carinena, Segorbe, Sagunto,
The Chiva, buñol and other cities.


The papal Nuncio Jean de
La Grange was the organizer of the world
prisoner in Sagunto 2 July 1363.
Whatever it was, the agreement was ratified by
it was not, and in relations between the two parties
continued hostility. In 1363
the Castilians invaded Valencia, capturing
Alicante, Caudete, Elda, Gandia and a number of
other cities.


In the years 1365-1369 Pedro
Castilian was concerned with the fight against
his brother Enrique, therefore not accepted
active participation in the fight against Aragon.
In 1366 in Castile erupted into civil
war. The Castilian king was deprived of
the throne his brother Enrique, with the support of
the French troops of Bertrand Guesclin.
Without a battle Pedro the onslaught
their opponent was forced to leave
Kingdom, fled with his Treasury
Portugal. In Portugal, the king-exile
was coldly received by his uncle,
king Pedro I of Portugal. Leaving
Portugal, Pedro fled to Galicia, where
on his orders, were murdered Archbishop
Santiago and Dean Feralvarez. Pedro was
finally deprived of the throne in 1369. In
this conflict, Pedro of Castile was
supported by the Granada Emirate. For
Valencia is awash with Castilian
troops and their Moorish allies,
this war was a real disaster.



3.
The end of the war. The results of the conflict


The war of the two Pedro
ended with the signing of a peace Treaty
in Almaine. The contract is not secured
territorial gains nor for
one of the parties. Castille has again become
the Comarca under the control of the Aragonese
rulers. The Treaty was sealed with the marriage
between Eleanor of Aragon and Juan
Of Castile, son of Enrique of Castile.
The war of the two Pedro had serious consequences
for both sides. The scourge of war was
compounded with plague and other misfortunes,
such as drought and attacks of locusts.


ЛитератураDonald
J. Kagay, “The Defense of the Crown of Aragon during the War of the
Two Pedros (1356-1366)”, The Journal of Military History, Volume
71, Number 1, January 2007 References


Pedro I The Cruel


Source:
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Война_двух_Педро

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